(T^-i •X1 - u*1- ^j - Ci^f Newtonian (nu-to-ni-an) adj. Of Newton or his theory. Ju^ £_ oUlf.^.^ JL.. VI!J «i_' Next to nothing -ur*-; ts** *J*^ Nexus (nek-ses) n. Bond, link - J^J. ^i-ju - *Vj Niagara (ni-a-gra) n. Torrent, din, cataract - jl^T Nib (nib) v. Cookies, which are files created by websites you’ve visited, and your browser’s cache, which helps pages load faster, make it easier for you to browse the web.
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(May 2015) () This is an incomplete list of DIN. • The 'STATUS' column gives the latest known status of the standard. • If a standard has been withdrawn and no replacement specification is listed, either the specification was withdrawn without replacement or a replacement specification could not be identified. • DIN stands for ' ', meaning 'German institute for standardisation'. DIN standards that begin with 'DIN V' (' Vornorm', meaning 'pre-issue') are the result of standardization work, but because of certain reservations on the content or because of the divergent compared to a standard installation procedure of DIN, they are not yet published standards.
Ahmedabad Show map of India Coordinates:: Country Established • in 11th century as Ashaval and later Karnavati • on 26 February 1411 as Ahmedabad Government • Type • Body • () • Pramoda Sutariya • Mukesh Kumar Area • 464.165 km 2 (179.215 sq mi) Elevation 53 m (174 ft) Population (2011) • 5,633,927 • Rank • Density 12,000/km 2 (31,000/sq mi) • 6,357,693 Ahmedabadi/Amdavadi () 380 0XX GJ-1 (west), GJ-27 (East), [ ], GJ-38 Bavla (Rural) 1.11 / Literacy rate 89.62 Source: Census of India. Ahmedabad ( ( )), also known as Amdavad or Karnavati (historically), is the largest city and former capital of, which is a state in. It is the administrative headquarters of the and the seat of the. Ahmedabad's population of 5,633,927 makes it the in India, and the encompassing population estimated at 7,650,000 is the in India. Ahmedabad is located on the banks of the, 30 km (19 mi) from the state capital, which is its twin city.
Ahmedabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of in India, and is the country's second oldest. Is a popular sport in Ahmedabad, which houses the 54,000-seat. The effects of have energised the city's economy towards activities such as commerce, communication and construction. Ahmedabad's increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction and housing industries resulting in recent development of skyscrapers. In 2010, Ahmedabad was ranked third in 's list of fastest growing cities of the decade.
In 2012, chose Ahmedabad as India's best city to live in. As of 2014, Ahmedabad's estimated gross domestic product was $64 billion. Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a under 's flagship. In July 2017, the or Old Ahmadabad, was declared as India's first. Main article: The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as (or Ashapalli). At that time,, the ruler of Anhilwara (modern ), waged a successful war against the king of Ashaval, and established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati.
Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the of. Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the in the 14th century. However, by the earlier 15th century, the local governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar established his independence from the Delhi Sultanate and crowned himself as Muzaffar Shah I, thereby founding the. This area finally came under the control of his grandson Sultan in 1411 A.D. Who while at the banks of Sabarmati liked the forested area for a new capital city and laid the foundation of a new walled city near Karnavati and named it Ahmedabad after the four saints in the area by the name Ahmed.
According to other sources, he named it after himself. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411 (at 1.20 pm, Thursday, the second day of, 813 ). He chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411.
City Walls of Ahmedabad, 1866 In 1487,, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km (6.2 mi) in circumference and consisting of, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements. In 1535 briefly occupied Ahmedabad after capturing when the ruler of Gujarat,, fled to. Ahmedabad was then reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat was conquered by the emperor. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the Empire's thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, which were exported as far as. The Mughal ruler spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the in. The affected the city, as did famines in 1650 and 1686.
Ahmedabad remained the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to the. During the period of governance, the city became the centre of a conflict between the of and the of.
In 1780, during the, a British force under stormed and captured Ahmedabad, but it was handed back to the Marathas at the end of the war. The took over the city in 1818 during the. A military cantonment was established in 1824 and a municipal government in 1858. Incorporated into the during, Ahmedabad became one of the most important cities in the Gujarat region. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and (then Bombay) was established by the (BB&CI), enabling traffic and trade between and via the city. Over time, the city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it the nickname 'Manchester of the East'.
Ahmedabad and its environs, ca 1914 The developed roots in the city when established two – the near in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram (now ) on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 – which would become centres of nationalist activities. During the against the in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the. In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the from Ahmedabad by embarking from his ashram on the. The city's administration and economic institutions were rendered inoperative in the early 1930s by the large numbers of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests, and again in 1942 during the.
Following independence and the in 1947, the city was scarred by the intense communal violence that broke out between and in 1947, Ahmedabad was the focus for settlement by Hindu migrants from Pakistan, who expanded the city's population and transformed its demographics and economy. By 1960, Ahmedabad had become a metropolis with a population of slightly under half a million people, with classical and colonial European-style buildings lining the city's thoroughfares. It was chosen as the capital of Gujarat state after the partition of the on 1 May 1960.
During this period, a large number of educational and research institutions were founded in the city, making it a centre for, science and technology. Ahmedabad's economic base became more diverse with the establishment of heavy and chemical industry during the same period. Many countries sought to emulate India's economic planning strategy and one of them,, copied the city's second 'Five-Year Plan'. [ ] In the late 1970s, the capital shifted to the newly built, well planned city of. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, marked by a lack of development. The 1974 agitation – a protest against a 20% hike in the hostel food fees at the in Ahmedabad – snowballed into a movement to remove, then chief minister of Gujarat.
In the 1980s, a was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various. The city suffered some of the impact of the; up to 50 multi-storey buildings collapsed, killing 752 people and causing much damage. The following year, a three-day period of violence between Hindus and Muslims in the western Indian state of Gujarat, known as the, spread to Ahmedabad; refugee camps were set up around the city. The, a series of seventeen bomb blasts, killed and injured several people. Militant group claimed responsibility for the attacks. Geography [ ].
19th century painted cloth map of Ahmedabad Ahmedabad lies at in at 53 metres (174 ft) above on the banks of the river, in north-central Gujarat. It covers an area of 464 km 2 (179 sq mi). The Sabarmati frequently dried up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water, and the city is in a sandy and dry area. However with the execution of the Project and Embankment, the waters from the river have been diverted to the Sabarmati to keep the river flowing throughout the year, thereby eliminating Ahmedabad's water problems. The steady expansion of the threatened to increase desertification around the city area and much of the state; however, the Narmada Canal network is expected to alleviate this problem. Except for the small hills of, the city is almost flat.
Three lakes lie within the city's limits—, and Chandola. Kankaria, in the neighbourhood of, is an artificial lake developed by the Sultan of Gujarat, Kutb-ud-din, in 1451. According to the, the town falls under, in a scale of 2 to 5 (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes). Ahmedabad is divided by the Sabarmati into two physically distinct eastern and western regions. The eastern bank of the river houses the old city, which includes the central town of.
This part of Ahmedabad is characterised by packed, the system of closely clustered buildings, and numerous places of worship. A Pol (pronounced as pole) is a housing cluster which comprises many families of a particular group, linked by,,. In the of Ahmedabad in,. Heritage of these Pols has helped Ahmedabad gain a place in Tentative Lists, in II, III and IV. The secretary-general of quoted that if 12000 of Ahmedabad are restored they could be very helpful in promoting heritage tourism and its allied businesses. The Art Reverie in Moto Sutharvado is center. The first pol in Ahmedabad was named Mahurat Pol.
Old city also houses the main, the main, and some buildings of the Muzaffarid and British eras. The colonial period saw the expansion of the city to the western side of Sabarmati, facilitated by the construction of in 1875 and later the relatively modern. The western part of the city houses educational institutions, modern buildings, residential areas, shopping malls, multiplexes and new business districts centred around roads such as, and. There are nine bridges on the river Sabarmati that connect the eastern and western regions.
Sabarmati Riverfront is a waterfront being developed along the banks of Sabarmati river in Ahmedabad, India. Proposed in 1960s, the construction began in 2005 Climate [ ] Ahmedabad has a hot, semi-arid climate (: ), with marginally less rain than required for a.
There are three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is extremely dry. The weather is hot from March to June; the average summer maximum is 43 °C (109 °F), and the average minimum is 24 °C (75 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), the average minimum is 13 °C (55 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average annual rainfall is about 800 millimetres (31 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause local rivers to flood and it is not uncommon for droughts to occur when the monsoon does not extend as far west as usual.
The highest temperature in the city was recorded on 18 and 19 May 2016 which was 50 °C (122 °F). In Ahmedabad Ahmedabad is the administrative headquarters of, administered by the (AMC). The AMC was established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act of 1949. The AMC commissioner is an (IAS) officer appointed by the who reserves the administrative executive powers, whereas the corporation is headed by the Mayor. The city residents elect the 192 by popular vote, and the elected councillors select the deputy mayor and mayor of the city. The administrative responsibilities of the AMC are: water and sewerage services, primary education, health services, fire services, public transport and the city's infrastructure. AMC was ranked 9th out of 21 cities for 'the Best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014.
It scored 3.4 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.' The city is divided into six zones constituting 64 wards. Ahmedabad district is divided into a number of (administrative divisions) including,,,,,,,, and. The city's urban and suburban areas are administered by the (AUDA). The city is represented by two elected members of parliament in the (lower house of Indian Parliament) and 21 at the Gujarat.
The is located in the Ahmedabad, making the city the judicial capital of Gujarat. Law enforcement and public safety is maintained by the, headed by the, an (IPS) officer. Health services are primarily provided at, the largest civil hospital in Asia. Ahmedabad is one of the few cities in India where the power sector is privatised. Electricity in the city is generated and distributed by, owned and operated by the Ahmedabad Electricity Company, which was previously a state-run corporation. Torrent Power thermal power station at Sabarmati, Ahmedabad The gross domestic product of Ahmedabad was estimated at US$64 billion in 2014.
The RBI ranked Ahmedabad as the seventh largest deposit centre and seventh largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012. In the 19th century, the textile and garments industry received strong capital investment. On 30 May 1861 founded the first Indian textile mill, the, followed by the establishment of a series of textile mills such as the, Bagicha Mills and. By 1905 there were about 33 textile mills in the city.
The textile industry further expanded rapidly during the, and benefited from the influence of Mahatma Gandhi's, which promoted the purchase of Indian-made goods. Ahmedabad was known as the 'Manchester of the East' for its textile industry. The city is the largest supplier of and one of the largest exporters of and in India. The is also important to the city; after project, and are planning to establish plants near Ahmedabad while the for has already been performed.
The, located in the Ambavadi area of the city, is India's second oldest stock exchange. Two of the biggest — and – are based in the city. The group of industries, which runs a large number of detergent and chemical industrial units, has its corporate headquarters in the city. The city also houses the corporate headquarters of the, a multinational trading and infrastructure development company.
The of dams and canals has improved the supply of potable water and electricity for the city. The industry has developed significantly in Ahmedabad, with companies such as opening offices in the city. A survey in 2002 on the 'Super Nine Indian Destinations' for IT-enabled services ranked Ahmedabad fifth among the top nine most competitive cities in the country. The city's educational and industrial institutions have attracted students and young skilled workers from the rest of India. Ahmedabad houses other major Indian corporates such as:,,,, and.
Ahmedabad is the second largest cotton textile centre in India after Mumbai and the largest in Gujarat. Many cotton manufacturing units are currently running in and around Ahmedabad.
Textiles are one of the major industries of the city. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation has acquired land in taluka of Ahmedabad to set up three new industrial estates. Demographics [ ] Population growth of Ahmedabad Census Pop.%± 1871 116,900. — 1911 216,800 16.6% 1921 270,000 24.5% 1931 313,800 16.2% 1941 595,200 89.7% 1951 788,300 32.4% 1961 1,149,900 45.9% 1971 1,950,000 69.6% 1981 2,515,200 29.0% 1991 3,312,200 31.7% 2001 4,525,013 36.6% 2011 5,633,927 24.5% sources: At the Ahmedabad had a population of 5,633,927, making it the in India. The centred upon Ahmedabad, then having a population of 6,357,693, now estimated at 7,650,000, is the in India.
The city had a of 89.62%; 93.96% of the men and 84.81% of the women were literate. Ahmedabad's sex ratio in 2011 was 897 women per 1000 men.
According to the census for the, there are 30,737 rural families living in Ahmedabad. Of those, 5.41% (1663 families) live. Approximately 440,000 people live in within the city. 0.24% According to the 2011 census, are the predominant religious community in the city comprising 81.56% of the population followed by (13.51%), (3.62%), (0.85%) and (0.24%)., people following other religions and those who didn't state any religion make up the remainder. Ahmedabad is home to a large population of (i.e., traders), belonging to the sect of Hinduism and various sects of. Most of the residents of Ahmedabad are native.
The city is home to some 2000 and some 125 members of the community. There is also one in the city. In 2008, there were 2273 registered living in Ahmedabad.
In 2010, rated Ahmedabad as the fastest-growing city in India, and listed it as third fastest-growing in the world after the Chinese cities of and. In 2011, it was rated India's best megacity to live in by leading market research firm IMRB. According to the (NCRB) report of 2003, Ahmedabad has the lowest crime rate of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more than one million. In December 2011 market research firm declared Ahmedabad the best megacity to live in, when compared to India's other megacities.
Slightly less than half of all real estate in Ahmedabad is owned by 'community organisations' (i.e. Cooperatives), and according to Prof. School of Business Management, 'the spatial growth of the city is to [an] extent [a] contribution of these organisations'.
Provides residential zones for officials. Celebrations in Ahmedabad Ahmedabad observes a wide range of festivals. Popular celebrations and observances include, an annual kite-flying day on 14 and 15 January. Nine nights of are celebrated with people performing, the most popular folk dance of Gujarat, at venues across the city. The festival of lights,, is celebrated with the lighting of lamps in every house, decorating the floors with, and the lighting of.
The annual procession on the Ashadh-sud-bij date of the at the and the procession of Tajia during the Muslim holy month of are important events. One of the most popular forms of meal in Ahmedabad is a typical Gujarati which was first served commercially by Chandvilas Hotel in 1900. It consists of (Chapati),, rice and shaak (cooked vegetables, sometimes with ), with accompaniments of and roasted. Sweet dishes include,, and vedhmi. Dhoklas, theplas and dhebras are also very popular dishes in Ahmedabad.
Beverages include and tea. Drinking alcohol is forbidden in Ahmedabad. There are many restaurants, which serve a wide array of Indian and international cuisines. Most of the food outlets serve only vegetarian food, as a strong tradition of vegetarianism is maintained by the city's Jain and Hindu communities.
The first all-vegetarian in the world opened in Ahmedabad. KFC has a separate staff uniform for serving vegetarian items and prepares vegetarian food in a separate kitchen, as does McDonald's.
Ahmedabad has a quite a few restaurants serving typical non-vegetarian food in older areas like Bhatiyar Gali, and. Is an open square near the centre of the city that functions as a vegetable market in the morning and a jewellery market in the afternoon. However, it is better known for its food stalls in the evening, which sell local. It is named after the Hindu saint Baba. Parts of Ahmedabad are known for their. The artisans of Rangeela pol make, while the cobbler shops of Madhupura sell traditional mojdi (also known as mojri) footwear. Idols of and other religious icons are made in huge numbers in the Gulbai Tekra area.
The shops at the sell mirror work handicraft. Three main literary institutions were established in Ahmedabad for the promotion of:, and. Festival is held in the first week of the new year. This event was inaugurated.
The, one of the several buildings in Ahmedabad designed by, is a city museum depicting its history, art, culture and architecture. The and the have permanent displays of photographs, documents and other articles relating to and. The has a large collection of Indian and international fabrics, garments and textiles. The has a collection of rare original manuscripts in,,, and. [ ] There is Vechaar Utensils Museum which has of stainless steel, glass, brass, copper, bronze, zinc and German silver tools. Shreyas Foundation has four museums on the same campus.
Shreyas Folk Museum (Lokayatan Museum) has art forms and artefacts from communities of. Kalpana Mangaldas Children's Museum has a collection of toys, puppets, dance and drama costumes, coins and a repository of recorded music from traditional shows from all over the world. Kahani houses photographs of fairs and festivals of. Sangeeta Vadyakhand is a gallery of musical instruments from India and other countries. L D Institute of Indology houses about 76,000 hand-written Jain manuscripts with 500 illustrated versions and 45,000 printed books, making it the largest collection of Jain scripts, Indian sculptures, terracottas, miniature paintings, cloth paintings, painted scrolls, bronzes, woodwork, Indian coins, textiles and decorative art, paintings of and art of Nepal and Tibet. N C Mehta Gallery of Miniature Paintings has a collection of ornate miniature paintings and manuscripts from all over India.
Ahmedabad BRTS, Ahmedabad is one of six operating divisions in the. Railway lines connect the city to towns in and major Indian cities., locally known as Kalupur station is the main terminus with 11 others. The mass-transit metro system, for the cities of Ahmedabad and is under construction since March 2015. The North-South and East-West corridors are expected to complete by 2019. Railway Station Announcement Ringtone Download. , linking to, passes through Ahmedabad and connects it with, Delhi and Mumbai. The also links Ahmedabad to Gandhinagar. It is connected to through, a 94 km (58 mi) long expressway with two exits.
This expressway is part of the project. In 2001, Ahmedabad was ranked as the most polluted city in India, out of 85 cities, by the Central Pollution Control Board. The gave auto rickshaw drivers an incentive of ₹10,000 to convert all 37,733 auto rickshaws in Ahmedabad to cleaner burning to reduce pollution.
As a result, in 2008, Ahmedabad was ranked as 50th most polluted city in India. Is a system in the city.
It is operated by Ahmedabad Janmarg Limited, a subsidiary of and others. It was inaugurated in October 2009. The network expanded to 89 kilometres (55 mi) by December 2015 with daily ridership of 1,32,000 passengers. The (AMTS), maintained by, runs the public bus service in the city. At present, AMTS has more than 750 buses serving the city., 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city centre, provides domestic and international flights.
It is the busiest airport in Gujarat and the eighth busiest in India with an average of 250 aircraft movements a day. The is proposed near.
It will be the largest airport in India with a total area of 7,500 hectares. Education [ ].
See also: Ahmedabad had a rate of 79.89% in 2001 which rose to 89.62 percent in 2011. As of 2011, literacy rate among male and female were 93.96 and 84.81 percent respectively. Among the several, is the largest and claims to be the oldest; although the was established in 1920 by - it received no charter from the, becoming a only in 1963.
A large number of colleges in the city are affiliated with Gujarat University.,,, and all date from this century. Has over 100,000 students enrolled on its distance learning courses. Established in 1947 by the scientist, the oldest of the, the is active in space science, astronomy, high-energy physics and many other areas of research. The, established in 1949 by, was listed by UNESCO as an institution active in the 'Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage'.
Schools in Ahmedabad are run either by the municipal corporation, or privately by entities, trusts and corporations. The majority of schools are affiliated with the, although some are affiliated with the,, and.
Broadcasting tower of the Ahmedabad Doordarshan Newspapers in Ahmedabad include English dailies such as,,,,, and Metro. Newspapers in other languages include,,,,, and Aankhodekhi. The city is home to the historic, which was founded in 1919 by Mahatma Gandhi. The state-owned Ahmedabad is broadcast both on the and FM bands (96.7 MHz) in the city. It competes with five private local FM stations: (91.1 MHz), (93.5 MHz), My fm (94.3 MHz), (95.0 MHz), (98.3 MHz). (104.5 MHz) is an educational FM radio station run under media co-operation model.
In March 2012 started campus radio service on 90.8 MHz which was first kind of it in state and fifth in India. There is also 104 radio station - Mirchi love The state-owned television broadcaster provides free terrestrial channels, while two — and and GTPL—provide a mix of Gujarati, Hindi, English, and other regional channels via. Telephone services are provided by landline and mobile operators such as,,,,,,,,, and. A cricket stadium with 54,000 capacity, in, Ahmedabad is one of the popular sports in the city. (also known as Stadium), built in 1982, hosts both and. It has a seating capacity of 54,000. It hosted the 1987, 1996 and 2011.
Ahmedabad also has a second cricket stadium at the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation's which is the home ground of the that plays in the tournament. Other popular sports are, badminton, tennis, and golf. Ahmedabad currently has three. Is being developed by the AMC to promote various indoor sports. Recently Ahmedabad hosted national level games for and table tennis. Is gaining popularity in the city, with the introduction of a 380 metre long track based on concepts.
Is organised every year in December–January since 2011 which have different categories like full and half marathon, 7 km dream run, 5 km run for visually challenged and 5 km wheelchair run. In 2007, Ahmedabad hosted the 51st national level games. The is held in Ahmedabad at (a renovated Kankaria football ground)., a five-time winner of the and a recipient of India's highest sporting award, the, was raised in Ahmedabad.
International relations [ ]. Main article: Sister Cities •,, (2008) •,, (September 2014) •, •,, •,, •,, Notable citizens [ ] • – Founder of Ahmedabad. • – The first, popularly known as Sardar Patel. • – Scientist and innovator, regarded as the father of India's space program. • - Indian Classical Dancer founder of Darpana Academy • – Activist and Indian classical dancer.
• – Billionaire businessman, the chairman and founder of. • – Cooperative organizer, activist and Gandhian, founder of the Indian.
• – Poet, and writer. • – Eminent jurist, the first and longest serving. • – Cricketer, wicketkeeper-batsman for the Indian national cricket team. • – Poet and professor. • – Psychotherapist and former actress. • - Founder of Nirma Group See also [ ] •.
• Muktirajsinhji Chauhan and Kamalika Bose. History of Interior Design in India Vol 1: Ahmedabad (2007) • Kenneth L. Gillion (1968)..
University of California Press. • Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. A history of important ancient towns and cities in Gujarat and Kathiawad (from the earliest times down to the Moslem conquest).
ASIN B0008B2NGA. • Crook, Nigel (1993).
India's Industrial Cities: Essays in Economy and Demography. Oxford University Press.. Soundra (1989). Archaeological Survey of India. • Forrest, George William.
Cities of India. Adamant Media Corporation.. Runaway Road Adventure Patch Free. • Gandhi, R (1990). 'Patel: A Life'. Navajivan Press, Ahmedabad. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
• Michell, George (2003). Art Media Resources.. • Spodek, Howard (2011). Ahmedabad: Shock City of Twentieth-Century India.
Indiana University Press.. External links [ ].