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Module 7 Quantum Jumping Review

Learn to Quantum Jump Now. Check out this video of Burt Goldman taking an audience on a Quantum Jumping experience.

Quantum Jumping is a multi-media coaching program which combines deep guided meditation and advanced visualization techniques among other science and spirituality practices which help the user tap into their subconscious and supposedly learn from their alternate selves.

25 May 2012: 's (pictured) becomes the first to rendezvous with the. The year 2012 involved many significant scientific events and discoveries, including the by a, the discovery of a particle highly similar to the long-sought, and the near-eradication of. A total of occurred in 2012, and the year also saw numerous developments in fields such as,, and. Over 540,000 technological applications were made in the United States alone in 2012. 2012 was declared the International Year of by the.

Module 7 Quantum Jumping Review

There are 7 CD's each with a number of modules all designed to teach you the ways of Quantum Jumping. I have gone through each of these modules with an open mind, doing the exercises exactly as he says to do them. I will now go through them with you, and let you form your own opinion. Note: I had to. What’s new in a nutshell. After three months of development the new update release GRASS GIS 7.2.2 is available. It provides more than 120 stability fixes and.

2012 also marked, a celebration of the life and work of the English mathematician,, and. 1 January 2012: 's twin satellites (artist's impression shown) begin studying the Moon's gravitational field. • 1 January – 's satellite successfully enters orbit, joining its twin spacecraft GRAIL-A. The two satellites will study the Moon's gravitational field, generating a detailed map of its fluctuations to help scientists understand how the Moon formed. • 2 January • China launches its first commercial channel, operated by (CCTV). • A new study shows that (DBS) is a safe and effective intervention for in patients with either (MDD) or (BP). • 3 January – fast-ageing exhibited improved health and lived two to three times longer than expected after being injected with, according to findings published in Nature Communications.

• 4 January • American scientists report that a species of fly which compels to abandon their hives may be responsible for a global that has decimated hives around the world. Honey bees are crucial, and their rapidly diminishing population may have severe effects on human. • scientists develop genetically modified capable of producing large amounts of, which has a greater than. If available in bulk quantities, the silk could be used to produce high-strength medical and lightweight forms of.

• Scientists at the develop a method for generating accurate 3D models of cellular. • Researchers at report promising results in human trials of a prototype vaccine. • Scientists at use a specialised lens to entirely cloak an object from view for 40 trillionths of a second by altering the. • Classified documents are leaked detailing a range of advanced proposed or in development by the. Among the systems described are a -based weapon designed to divert hostile aircraft, an underwater for incapacitating and a heat-based weapon designed to compel crowds to disperse. 4 January 2012: scientists create capable of producing bulk quantities of steel-strong.

• 5 January •, the first female astronaut, is selected to head the - and -sponsored 100-Year Starship project, which aims to conduct research into the technological and human elements needed for. • American scientists report that they have bred the first-ever grown from cells taken from different.

Such ' hybrids could give valuable insights into the development of human embryos. • A team of international researchers reports that electrical wires can be produced at the scale by chaining atoms together and encasing them in. In future, the development may permit the production of. • A team of American, French and Italian researchers demonstrate working made from fibers, doped with gold and a conductive polymer.

The invention could permit the creation of a range of electronic-fabric devices, including clothing capable of measuring pollutants, T-shirts that display dynamic information, and carpets that sense how many people are crossing them. • 6 January • The human brain's ability to function can start to deteriorate as early as, according to a study published in the. • Scientists refute a claim that has caused a new. 11 January 2012: astronomers report that nearly every star in the may host (artist's impression of pictured). • 9 January • Human emissions of will defer the next, according to a new study. • Researchers in California develop a cheap plastic capable of removing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the air. The new material could enable the development of 'artificial trees' that lower atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 in an effort to lessen the effects of.

• 10 January • The 2012 opens in,. Among the new products and technologies showcased are large-screen televisions, and consumer-ready. • Climate change, in the form of reduced snowfall in mountains, is having a major impact on mountainous plant and bird communities, through the increased ability of to stay at high elevations over winter and consume plants, according to a study in Nature Climate Change. • 11 January • An international team of astronomers report that each star in the may host ', suggesting that over 160 billion star-bound planets may exist in our galaxy alone. The team used to discover the gravitational effects of planets orbiting distant stars. • American astronomers discover three rocky smaller than Earth, the smallest such worlds yet found, orbiting a star 130 from Earth. • Researchers report the discovery of a natural that has a similar effect to on tissue – burning, improving processing, and perhaps boosting strength.

• 12 January • Scientists formally describe the world's smallest known species, – a that measures just 7 millimeters in length. The species was first discovered in in 2009. • A researcher who studied the health benefits of, a compound found in, has been found to have falsified data on numerous occasions. 12 January 2012:, the world's smallest known, is formally described. • 13 January • researchers successfully store a single of data in a group of just 12 supercooled atoms; current commercial require over 1 million atoms to store one bit of data. The breakthrough, which was achieved with the use of a, may permit the production of ultra-high-density computer in future.

• German scientists convert a gold sphere just 60 nanometres in diameter into an ultra-sensitive, potentially allowing the sounds of bacteria and other single-celled organisms to be recorded. • 14 January – Researchers at the repair damage in ageing mice with by injecting the blood of younger mice into them, reactivating the older mice's regenerative. • 15 January – Russia's spacecraft, which became stranded in orbit after a post-launch malfunction in November 2011, re-enters Earth's atmosphere. • 18 January • Astronomers report the discovery of the most distant yet found, approximately 10 billion light-years away. • A British amateur astronomer discovers a new -sized exoplanet, just days after the 's Stargazing Live program makes a public appeal for volunteers to assist scientists in the search for potential exoplanets. Over 100,000 volunteers are reportedly taking part in the ongoing search. • Archaeologists find a novel tulip-shaped fossil, formally named Siphusauctum gregarium, in the in the.

The 20-centimetre-long creature reportedly possessed a unique system. • A working is developed by engineers, demonstrating that could serve as a viable alternative to in future devices. • 19 January • Austrian researchers develop a capable of performing calculations without revealing any of the data involved, using encoded strings of designed to appear random. This method of 'blind ' may permit sensitive data to be processed and transferred without any danger of interception or decryption, leading to ultra-secure. • NASA data shows that in 2011, temperatures in the Arctic rose beyond the record established in 2010 — setting a new record. • 20 January – agree to a temporarily hiatus on experiments on the virus, due to fears that an airborne strain of the lethal virus could be used. • 22 January • American researchers report that can be successfully engineered to mimic part of the body's, improving its response to vaccines.

• An international team of scientists concludes that anthropogenic over the last 100 to 200 years have already raised far beyond the range of natural variations. 23 January 2012: is successfully used to ease the symptoms of in human volunteers (human shown). • 23 January • South Korean scientists develop that can recognise the existence and concentration of molecules placed on them. The invention could allow the development of with the ability to diagnose users' medical conditions. • reports that a human medical trial of successfully eased a degenerative form of in two volunteers, and showed no signs of any adverse effects. • Brain scans of people under the influence of, the active ingredient in, have given scientists the most detailed picture to date of how work.

• Scientists demonstrate a 100 nanometers across – 30,000 times smaller than the previous smallest antenna. The invention could permit the production of lightweight, handheld devices able to accurately scan for bombs, chemicals and even subcutaneous.

• 24 January • Earth is struck by the largest since 2005, creating huge and potentially interfering with satellite communications worldwide. • A nest of 100 million years older than the previous oldest site is found in. The fossils are of the species, a relative of the long-necked.

• 25 January • University of Washington scientists report that injecting particles into the will not fully offset. • A study in Japan finds that can significantly reduce disability in the elderly, likely due to its content.

• 26 January – American researchers successfully ' a three-dimensional object, making it invisible from all angles, for the first time. However, the demonstration works only for waves in the region of the. 27 January 2012: the most detailed 3D image of the yet produced is published. • 27 January • An international team of scientists reports that, already widely known for its conductive properties, is also able to selectively filter gases and liquids.

The material could thus potentially find use in industrial and water purification. • A study published in the journal Carcinogenesis shows that in both cell lines and mouse models, (GSE) kills head and neck cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed.

• Using an airborne system, scientists produce the most detailed 3D image of the yet recorded, allowing the accurate measurement of the rainforest's ecosystem and rate of. •, an asteroid between 8 metres (26 ft) and 11 metres (36 ft) across, passes within 60,000 kilometres of the Earth, performing one of the closest asteroid flybys yet recorded. • British animators develop a new method of creating highly realistic CGI trees, allowing films and video games to easily display realistic 3D foliage. • 29 January – Using generated from patients with, and other, scientists at the create with brain tissue genetically identical to the person's brain. The breakthrough could allow new treatments for mental illnesses to be accurately tested without endangering patients.

• 30 January • A report warns that time is running out to ensure there is enough food, water and energy for a rapidly rising. By 2030, the world will need at least 50 percent more food, 45 percent more energy and 30 percent more water, according to estimates. • The British begins development of a new anti-missile defence system, the Sea Ceptor, capable of intercepting and destroying missiles within an area of 500 square miles (1,300 km 2). The system is likely to enter service by 2017. • American researchers report that waves can be used effectively to kill, potentially offering a new method.

• from anthropogenic in North America leads to the annual loss of 1.2 million tonnes of in Europe alone, according to a study published by British universities. • A NASA study reports that changes in cannot be responsible for the current period of. The sun's total has in recent years dipped to the lowest levels recorded during the satellite era.

• According to, seem to have mated with 'at least two groups' of: and. 31 January 2012: American scientists demonstrate a method of decoding human thoughts by studying the (indicated). • 31 January • American scientists successfully demonstrate a method of decoding thoughts by studying activity in the human brain's, which is involved in linguistic processing. Using this method, a device which reads and transmits the thoughts of brain-damaged patients could become a reality in the future. • designer launches its graphics card, based on a manufacturing process – a more advanced of the current standard.

•, China's largest freshwater lake, has almost completely dried up due to a combination of severe and the impact of the recently built. February [ ].

3 February 2012: the array enters operation in northern. • 1 February – Researchers report that the eruption of could be predicted several decades before the event by detecting the seismic and chemical signs of a massive buildup. • 2 February • The issues a 225-million- (US$330 million) contract to an Anglo-German consortium for eight additional satellites to expand Europe's satellite navigation system. • Astronomers report the discovery of a large orbiting within the of a star 22 light-years distant.

This is the fourth potentially life-supporting exoplanet discovered since May 2011. • Researchers reportedly create the world's thinnest pane of glass, a sheet of silicon and oxygen just three atoms wide. The glass formed in an accidental reaction when the scientists were synthesizing on -covered. • 3 February • The successfully activates its (VLT) by linking four existing optical telescopes to operate as a single device. The linked VLT is the largest optical telescope yet built, with a combined mirror diameter of 130 metres (430 ft). • Physicists at Germany's unveil a that can image living brain cells as they function inside a living animal. • American scientists demonstrate a medical procedure that may allow patients suffering from damage to recover within weeks, rather than months or years.

The procedure makes use of a cellular mechanism similar to that which repairs nerve in. • researchers develop high-temperature capable of efficiently converting heat to electricity, potentially allowing the creation of pocket-sized microreactors with ten times the efficiency and lifespan of current commercial batteries. As photonic crystals are already a relatively mature technology, the new invention could be commercialised in as little as two years. • A study reports that global deaths may be badly underestimated, giving a revised 2010 malaria death toll of 1.24 million.

By contrast, the estimated that 655,000 people died of malaria in 2010. • 4 February – Dutch doctors successfully fit an 83-year-old woman with an artificial jaw made using a. This operation, the first of its kind, could herald a new era of accurate, patient-tailored artificial transplants. 4 February 2012: Dutch doctors successfully fit the first artificial jaw made with a (ORDbot Quantum 3D printer pictured).

• 6 February • After nearly 20 years of intermittent drilling, Russian scientists reportedly break through to the surface of the subterranean, buried 2.5 miles (4.0 km) under the ice. The lake, which has not been uncovered for over 15 million years, may harbour a unique prehistoric ecosystem. • A team of engineers and biologists develop a working computer memory out of DNA molecules by combining the DNA with silver nanoparticles.

• 7 February • Scientists report that rapid declines in some British and European species are being caused by the spread of the invasive species. • The entire of an extinct species of human – the 40,000-year-old – has been decoded from a fossil.

• 8 February – NASA data reveals that the total land ice lost from, and Earth's and ice caps between 2003 and 2010 totalled about 4.3 trillion tons (1,000 cubic miles), adding about 0.5 inches (12 millimeters) to global sea levels. Such a quantity of ice would be sufficient to cover the entire United States to a depth of 1.5 feet (0.5 meters). • 9 February – Researchers at discover that bexarotene, a drug normally used to treat, can quickly reverse the symptoms of in mice, removing over 50% of the disease's trademark from the brain within 72 hours. • 10 February – Scientists at the report the creation of the tiniest yet built, just 200 nanometers wide.

The highly efficient nanolaser could be used to develop and ultra-high-resolution imaging systems. • 13 February • A new UN report warns that 24 percent of global land area has declined in productivity over the past 25 years due to unsustainable land-use, and rates are about 100 times greater than nature can replenish. • The successfully conducts the maiden launch of its new rocket, transporting several satellites into orbit, including the first, and satellites. • engineers unveil a -based structural battery capable of being integrated into a device's framework, reducing weight while maintaining structural strength and power capacity. • 14 February – In a groundbreaking human trial, American scientists report that damaged heart tissue in patients can be repaired with infusions of the patient's own stem cells.

The treatment halved the amount of extant scar tissue within a year. 15 February 2012: becomes the first US state to release official regulations for the public testing of (prototype autonomous pictured). • 15 February – becomes the first US state to allow the testing of on US public roadways. • 16 February – The speed at which someone may predict their likelihood of developing later in life, according to researchers in the US. • 20 February – Scientists report regenerating from 32,000-year-old remains. This surpasses the previous record of 2,000 years for the oldest material used to regenerate a plant.

• 22 February • Scientists have extended the life of male mice by 15%, using an enzyme called SIRT6. • Engineers at Stanford University reveal a wirelessly powered, self-propelled medical device that can travel through the bloodstream to deliver drugs, perform diagnostics or microsurgeries. • reports the detection of the solid form of in. • Researchers show that, a class of proteins, is directly linked to longevity in mammals. • 24 February – British-Italian researchers demonstrate a giant 3D printer capable of constructing a full-sized house in a single 24-hour session. The machine, which uses and a chemical binder as its working material, prints structures from the ground up, including stairs, partition walls and even piping cavities. • 26 February • Researchers publish the first images of the charge distribution in a single molecule, precisely showing the motion of.

The observed distribution apparently corresponds closely with predictive models. • It may be possible to one day create an 'unlimited' supply of to aid treatment, US doctors say. • 27 February • The remains of two new species of prehistoric are discovered – and.

Standing nearly 5 feet (1.5 m) tall, Kairuku grebneffi is the largest penguin ever discovered. • 28 February • announces a breakthrough in, demonstrating a microchip that can preserve its quantum states up to four times longer than previous designs. • Researchers estimate that 's bite force could exceed 57,000, more than three times that of a. 7 March 2012: scientists of the. • 1 March – New research concludes that the Earth's oceans may be at a faster rate than at any time in the past 300 million years. • 2 March • NASA's spacecraft detects in the atmosphere of 's moon.

• of 42 previous studies concludes that some consumption of may be good for the. • 5 March – A study finds a between as a and behavior problems later in childhood. • 7 March • Physicists from report data suggesting that the elusive hypothesized (', with a mass of 115 to 000000000♠135 GeV/ c 2) may have been detected. • Scientists successfully decode the, the last of the genera to be sequenced. • 8 March • A study suggests that donor may prevent in imperfectly matched cases. • The international announces the discovery of a new type of.

• 9 March – US researchers announce a breakthrough in treating, using a cancer drug to attack HIV inside certain immune-system cells, which were previously difficult to reach with treatments. • 12 March • Researchers at the develop a that can print at the nano-scale and is orders of magnitude faster than previous devices. • A diet high in can shorten by increasing the risk of death from cancer and heart problems, according to a study of more than 120,000 people by researchers at Harvard Medical School. Substituting red meat with fish, chicken or nuts lowered the risks, the study found. • 13 March • A California-based company has developed solar panels that are half the price of today's cheapest cells, and therefore cheap enough to challenge fossil fuels. • Scientists have identified a potential drug that speeds up trash removal from the cell's recycling center, the, one of the causes of and degenerative diseases.

15 March 2012: scientists send the first coherent message using (first recorded neutrino event pictured). • 14 March • A fly species, kept in complete darkness for 57 years (1,400 generations), showed genetic alterations that occurred as a result of environmental conditions, offering clear evidence of. • A pill which doubles the length of time that patients with advanced can survive has gone on sale in Britain for the first time. • America's coastlines are even more vulnerable to sea level rise than previously thought, according to a pair of new studies. Up to 32% more real estate could be affected by a 1-meter rise in sea level, while the population exposed to rising water is 87% higher than previously estimated.

• A process to 'unprint' toner ink from paper has been developed by engineers at the University of Cambridge, using short laser pulses to erase words and images. • 15 March – American scientists use a particle accelerator to send a coherent message through 780 feet of rock. This marks the first use of neutrinos for communication, and future research may permit binary neutrino messages to be sent immense distances through even the densest materials, such as the Earth's core. • 16 March – Physicists found no discernible difference between the speed of a neutrino and the in latest test of the. • 18 March • Researchers have identified why a mutation in a particular gene can lead to. • has developed 'organic radical battery' (ORB) technology with a thickness of just 0.3mm.

• 19 March • Even if humankind manages to limit to 2 degrees C (3.6 degrees F), as the recommends, future generations will have to deal with 12 to 22 meters (40 to 70 feet) higher than at present, according to research published in the journal Geology. • Researchers at the RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan) have developed a way to create full-color with the aid of surface plasmons.

• The amount of photovoltaic installed in the US more than doubled from 2010 to 2011, according to a report by the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and GTM Research. • claims it has paved the way for 3.5-inch hard drives with 60TB capacities, after breaking the 1TB/square inch density threshold.

19 March 2012: researchers report that the number of in the United States more than doubled between 2010 and 2011. • 20 March • Astronomers have discovered the first known rectangular-shaped:. • New analysis by MIT shows that there is enough room underground to safely store at least a century's worth of U.S.. • 24 March – Humans hunted Australia's giant vertebrates to extinction about, the latest research published in Science has concluded. • 25 March • Global temperatures could rise by 3.0 °C (5.4 °F) by 2050, a new computer simulation has suggested.

• Canadian film director reaches the, the deepest known point in Earth's oceans, in the submersible. Cameron is the first person to visit the Deep, which is located in the Pacific, since 1960. • Physicists report that the largest molecules yet tested (molecules containing 58 or 114 atoms) also demonstrate using the classic. • 28 March – announces the name of the mountain,, that the rover (also known as 'Curiosity') will explore after its planned landing in on 6 August 2012. • 29 March • 'Solar tornadoes' several times as wide as the Earth have been observed in the Sun's atmosphere by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly telescope on board NASA's (SDO) satellite. • Scientists have revealed the most detailed picture of the ever produced, with over a billion stars visible in a mosaic combined from thousands of individual images. • New scanning technology has revealed that the human brain possesses an astonishingly simple 3D grid structure, with sheets of parallel neuronal fibers crossing one another at right angles.

12 April 2012: German scientists create the world's first network using atoms (rubidium sample shown). • 13 April • 's orbital rocket disintegrates in mid-flight over the, destroying its payload, the satellite. Analysts fear that the failed launch may raise the likelihood of North Korea conducting. • German scientists develop a fiber-based '-proof' wallpaper capable of reinforcing masonry and delaying building collapses during violent quakes. The invention could save lives by giving people more time to flee from collapsing buildings.

• places an order for advanced dual-focus, designed to give soldiers greater visual awareness, in tandem with a new system. The technology may enter the civilian market by 2014.

• Dutch scientists report that they have found evidence of the existence of the, a particle that is its own. The existence of the Majorana was first theorized by the Italian scientist in the 1930s. • Researchers at announce that they have stem cells to seek out and kill in mice. • 15 April – Researchers claim that new satellite imagery shows an increase in the mass of some glaciers in Asia's mountain range. This data contrasts with the wider global trend of glacial melting. • 16 April – A new treatment for can rid the disease from nine in ten men without debilitating side effects, a study has found.

• 17 April – It is revealed that the and militaries have been conducting informal together to help prevent military escalation in the event of a future. • 18 April – Researchers at the American demonstrate a -based drug treatment which can successfully alleviate some symptoms of (CP).

The drug, which was tested in rabbits, caused a dramatic improvement of the movement disorders and brain inflammation that are characteristic of many cases of CP. 19 April 2012: international researchers develop. • 19 April • A landmark study by British and Canadian scientists reveals that can be subdivided into ten distinct types, with its aggressiveness determined by certain genes.

The new data may make breast cancer diagnoses much more precise, and allow cancer treatments to be more effectively tailored to each patient. • Led by British scientists, a consortium including American, Belgian and Danish scientists successfully develop, dubbed 'XNA', which demonstrate when faced with selective pressure.

• British researchers identify key genes that 'switch off' as the human body ages. These genes may be targeted by future. • 20 April • Scientists say the notoriously dry continent of Africa is sitting on a vast reservoir of. • A -backed group of universities begins testing a -derived earthquake warning system.

The system, which uses satellite data to track seismic activity in real-time, may allow accurate earthquake and warnings to be issued up to ten times faster than is currently possible. • After three years of development, reveals a new, ultra-lightweight -air battery, offering greater energy density than any current battery. The new battery may permit the production of with far greater range and battery life than current models. • 21 April – Scientists at 's successfully trial a capable of restoring naturalistic muscle movements in paralyzed. It is hoped the invention will eventually be approved to treat paralytic or brain-damaged humans. • 22 April – releases its new – the world's first commercial microchips, featuring increased processing power and energy efficiency. • 24 April –, a backed by billionaires and and film director, announces plans to develop technology to survey and for minerals by 2020.

The company plans to launch the first element of its project, a network of orbital surveying telescopes, by 2014. • 26 April • Australian scientists develop a multi-layered, -based coating with greater durability than previous such coatings. The invention may be used to make self-cleaning fabrics and medical equipment. • Researchers develop a crystalline, composed of just 300 atoms, that theoretically is so powerful that it would take a conventional computer the size of the to match it. • Scientists report that survived over 34 days under in the Mars Simulation Laboratory (MSL) maintained by the (DLR).

• 27 April • Researchers identify 53 key in the brains of which may explain how the birds navigate using Earth's. • The British company begins testing the advanced engine precooler system intended for its reusable.

If the tests are successful, the hybrid-rocket Skylon – designed to vastly reduce the cost of orbital spaceflight – may begin flying cargo to Earth's orbit by 2020. 6 May 2012: scientists develop a drug capable of preventing the breakdown of cerebral production, potentially offering a new treatment for (cerebral plaques pictured). • 1 May • Scientists report that a new could diagnose the risk of years before the disease actually develops, allowing much more effective early treatment. • French researchers successfully create, a one--thick sheet of that is analogous to the much-vaunted. Silicene is theorized to retain silicon's excellent properties even at extremely small scales, and could allow the simple mass production of efficient computers.

• 2 May – The selects the (JUICE) proposal for its next major space exploration program. The robotic JUICE probe, which is planned to launch in 2022, will conduct in-depth studies of the moons, and. • 3 May – In the United Kingdom's first successful trial, two men blinded by have their sight partially restored. • 8 May –, a British woman, becomes the first person to complete a using a.

The suit allowed her to complete the in 16 days. • 9 May – A detailed design is released for a practical – a potentially revolutionary milestone in the development of sustainable energy.

• 11 May • American researchers report that preventable infections are the leading cause of worldwide. Of the 7.6 million children who died before their fifth birthday in 2010, over 60% died of infections such as. • Scientists at the use to transmit over a distance of 97 kilometres (60 mi) – a world record. The teleportation method, which utilises to transfer information between points without crossing the intervening space, could allow the development of ultra-secure. 20 May 2012: an occurs (eclipse photograph from, shown). • 12 May – Scientists refute the theory that sex-linked, such as the male, will become extinct. A new study shows that, although such chromosomes have shrunk and lost genetic material, they remain crucially important predictors of.

• 13 May – Researchers claim that there is a strong correlation between the loss of and the. • 14 May • Researchers extend the lifespan of mice by 24%, using applied when the mice were adults. The success of the technique, which involved inducing cells to produce more of the, suggests that adult is feasible. • Scientists grow healthy bone from human. This breakthrough could allow much quicker and easier for human patients. • Scientists at 's invent a working powered. Though currently a prototype, the device could eventually restore the sight of millions of people suffering from eye diseases such as and.

• 15 May • The United States announces a national plan to develop an effective treatment for by 2025. • American scientists develop a device which uses genetically engineered to generate electricity. The invention could allow the development of ubiquitous micro-generators which gather energy from everyday vibrations such as closing doors. • 16 May • American surgeons successfully restore hand function to a partly man using a pioneering nerve transfer technique. Following the surgery and subsequent physiotherapy, the patient – who entirely lost the use of his hands in a car accident – can now feed himself and even write with some assistance. • Japanese scientists develop a system which operates in the currently unregulated frequency spectrum. The system can transmit data at a rate of 3, a record for wireless data transmission; it could potentially be upgraded to transmit at 100 Gbit/s.

• The and officially name areas of, including, and, relevant to the landing of 's on 6 August 2012. • Engineers at build the world's first, which allows any member of the public to rapidly print objects on demand by submitting a blueprint to the machine. 25 May 2012: 's becomes the first to dock with the. • 20 May – An annular. • 22 May – American researchers demonstrate a rewritable capable of storing digital data. • 23 May – In a breakthrough for therapy, scientists grow healthy cells from the skin cells of patients.

This development could offer a new treatment for patients. • 25 May • 's unmanned completes a successful rendezvous with the, becoming the first ever to do so. • South Africa, Australia and New Zealand agree to co-host the (SKA), the world's largest single project. The SKA, which will comprise thousands of individual antennae with a combined signal-collecting area of 1 square kilometre (1,000,000 m 2), is expected to begin operations by 2025. • American researchers unveil a capable of slowing light to a virtual halt within an array of 25,000 microscopic lenses.

• Archeologists announce the discovery of a 42,000-year-old bone in a German cave – the oldest musical instruments yet discovered. • 29 May • A 'road train' of wirelessly linked successfully completes a 200-kilometre (120 mi) motorway journey, in Spain's first public test of autonomous vehicles.

• claims to have developed capable of defending against the powerful cyberweapon, which has infected computer networks across the Middle East. • 30 May • Scientists successfully the, and state that tastier and more -resistant tomato varieties can be for commercial use within five years. • Geologists report that can develop much faster than previously suspected – erupting within just a few hundred years of their formation, instead of tens of thousands of years. 30 May 2012: the is by international researchers. • 31 May • 's returns to Earth following to the. • Scientists develop a nanotechnology-based test which is potentially three million times more sensitive than conventional tests.

The new test could revolutionise the early detection of maladies such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. • The (IUPAC) officially names 114 and 116 ' and ', respectively. • develops a with the highest solar energy conversion efficiency yet achieved. A conversion efficiency of 43.5% was obtained by using a concentrator triple-junction compound cell, combining a focusing lens with multiple layers of light-absorbing compounds. June [ ] • 1 June • In a major milestone for, researchers publicly release the first installment of data from their project to construct the first whole-brain wiring diagram of a vertebrate brain, that of a. • Scientists publish the results of a successful neurorehabilitation study, in which paralysed regained the ability to walk and even sprint after receiving targeted electrochemical therapy. The rats' damaged were stimulated with chemicals and implanted, and a robotic assistive harness was used to 'teach' the rats to walk again.

• Australian researchers publish a new study revealing how the heals its after injury. According to the study, a specialised prevents paralysing forming when zebrafish suffer spinal cord damage. It is hoped that this protein may be exploited for the treatment of paralysed humans.

• 4 June – A partial. • 5 June • American glass manufacturer unveils an ultra-thin, flexible glass dubbed '. The invention, which is similar to Corning's widely used, could be used in the development of flexible computer displays and ultra-thin.

• The aircraft lands in after a 19-hour flight from Spain, marking the first intercontinental flight of a purely solar-powered aircraft. 5–6 June 2012:, the last such event until 2117, occurs (transit image from shown).

• 5–6 June – A, one of the rarest predictable astronomical phenomena,. Another such transit will not occur until the year 2117. • 6 June • An international group of scientists warns that, widespread, and may be driving the Earth toward an irreversible change in the – a planet-wide 'tipping point'. • Scientists at Sweden's achieve a breakthrough in creating a new vaccine, CAD106, for. •, a new version of the, is officially launched, offering trillions of possible new. • becomes the first nation in the world to have its plants. A tiny fragment of leaf, seed or root, or even a single grain, can now be used to identify species.

• German scientists develop thermal storage pellets that can store four times as much thermal energy as water, and can retain their energy almost indefinitely. • 7 June • According to scientists, the average temperature for the contiguous United States during May 2012 was 64.3, 3.3 °F above the long-term average, making it the second-warmest May on record. The month's high temperatures also contributed to the warmest spring, warmest year-to-date, and warmest 12-month period the United States has experienced since recordkeeping began in 1895. • Scientists at the successfully of an 18-week-old human in the by taking blood samples from the mother. In future, millions of children could be safely for genetic disorders in this way. • The has developed a form of underwater solar energy.

• A team of New Zealand scientists report that measuring the ratio of and levels on the planet may help determine the likelihood of. According to the scientists, '.low H 2/CH 4 ratios (less than approximately 40) indicate that life is likely present and active.' • In a separate study, a team of Netherland scientists associated with reported methods of detecting hydrogen and methane in. • 8 June • American researchers report that they have successfully developed a key insulation technology required for the demonstration reactor.

• American scientists build a tabletop-sized, vastly smaller and cheaper than most such devices. The invention could permit ultra-high-resolution imaging of microscopic structures such as living cells. • British researchers begin trialling 'smart' equipped with transmitters that can immediately detect and report mechanical breakdowns.

This will allow vital water pumps to be fixed much more quickly in rural Africa. • Japanese researchers grow a tiny, functioning human liver from. 13 June 2012: scientists publish the complete genome of the (female pictured). • 10 June • Canadian scientists develop a new method of accurately visualising complex interactions. The development could have broad implications for the biomedical and sciences, including the design of functional.

• 11 June • The is approved for construction by member states of the organization. • 12 June • Scientists unveil a new porous metal-organic framework, NOTT-202, capable of excess within its structure. • An extensive study concludes that several factors aligned to cause the of. • The, a research agency, concludes that exposure can cause.

• A123 Systems develops an improved version of its cells, potentially lowering the cost of. • 13 June • successfully launches its space telescope. • Scientists fully decode the. • 14 June • Swedish surgeons report having implanted a patient with a working lab-grown created with the patient's own stem cells. • Chinese researchers report that fields of can be beneficial to nearby non-GM plants by encouraging the proliferation of beneficial predator insects, which reduce the need for pesticides. • Examples of in Spain are dated to around 38,000 BC, making them the oldest examples of art yet discovered in Europe. Scientists theorize that the paintings may have been made by, rather than.

•, a large, passes by the planet. • Physical activity levels are declining worldwide, a trend that raises major health concerns, according to a new study. • New research warns that along the US western seaboard will drop to 7.8 by 2050, with serious consequences for many organisms. • 15 June • American scientists report a possible genetic link between and an increased risk of. • scientists report that may be very close to entering and becoming the first human-made object to leave the.

• 16 June • China successfully launches the manned spacecraft on a mission to the space station module. Shenzhou 9 carries a crew of three, including China's first female astronaut,. • The 's robotic returns to Earth after a successful 469-day orbital mission.

• 18 June – Researchers design a robot that can outperform humans in identifying a wide range of natural materials according to their textures. The invention paves the way for advancements in prostheses, personal assistive robots and consumer product testing.

• 19 June – Men who are heavy drinkers may be more likely to develop, according to new research. • 20 June • Engineers build a working 50- camera by synchronizing 98 tiny cameras in a single device.

• sources can fill 80 percent of American electricity demand by 2050, according to a new report. • 21 June • Scientists develop the world's first magnetic, based on magnetic molecules. The invention could be used to clean up or even guide medicines through human blood vessels. • 2.8-million-year-old climate data is reconstructed from cores recovered from Lake El’gygytgyn, Russia. The data is considerably older than the found in the. • 23 June – 100 years after the birth of English and computer pioneer, British experts cast doubt on the long-held notion that Turing's death was a suicide. • 24 June • China successfully completes its first manual orbital rendezvous, as the manned spacecraft docks with the module without the assistance of automated docking systems.

• Rates of sea level rise are increasing three-to-four times faster along portions of the U.S. Atlantic Coast than globally, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey report published in Nature Climate Change. • 26 June – The discovery of a new mineral,, is announced, with samples found in the.. • 27 June • Physicists collide gold together to produce a, similar to that which existed in the first instant after the. In doing so, they momentarily produce what reports is the highest man-made temperature ever: 4 trillion degrees Celsius (7.2 trillion degrees Fahrenheit). • Scientists develop a new, high-precision method for modifying organic compounds with new active molecules, easing the development of new medicines.

• Scientists associated with, and other international Universities report that, such as, may have lived in but ate fruit and other foods from the forest – behavior similar to modern-day savanna. • 28 June – An international team of astronomers discovers evidence that our had an encounter with a small galaxy or massive structure perhaps as recently as 100 million years ago, and as a result of that encounter it is still ringing like a bell. 29 June 2012: scientists develop an brain scanner which allows paralyzed people to communicate using thought alone (fMRI images shown). • 29 June • American researchers demonstrate 'paint-on' batteries, composed of active layers just 0.5 mm thick, capable of being spray-painted onto almost any surface. The technology could allow for the creation of lighter, more flexible electronic devices with a wide range of. • Dutch and German scientists unveil a new brain-scanning device that allows paralyzed people to type out words using only their thoughts.

• Scientists discover the remains of an enormous, 3-billion-year-old impact near the Maniitsoq region of, a billion years older than any other known collision on Earth. July [ ] • 1 July – The performs a musical composition created without human input by the computer. • 2 July • American researchers use a to build a framework for growing an. The sugar structure simulates a human vascular system, allowing artificial blood vessels to be grown to support the liver.

• Scientists use to display 3D video on a modified liquid membrane, creating the world's thinnest transparent video display. • sheets with precisely controlled pores can purify water more efficiently than existing methods, according to scientists at MIT. • Scientists report that indirect evidence supporting the existence of the has been found. • 3 July • Researchers photograph the of a single atom for the first time. • A study led by discovers a new, which allows three, but not two, atoms to stick together. • 4 July • physicists announce the discovery of a particle consistent with the 's at a '5 sigma' level of significance, indicating that there is only one chance in 3.5 million to get such a result by chance without a particle. • American scientists develop an electrically conductive gel that can easily be printed onto surfaces with a standard, allowing the rapid and simple production of a wide range of electronics.

• Researchers have identified seven genetic markers linked with a woman's size, according to a new study. 4 July 2012: scientists report the discovery of a particle with significant similarities to the (Higgs collision signature shown). • 5 July – Scientists have produced the most detailed footage of a single ever seen. In the timelapse video, individual are shown moving through different pathways within the cell. • 6 July • engineers develop an ultra-high-speed optical microscope capable of quickly and reliably identifying cells in human blood, paving the way for faster, cheaper and more reliable cancer diagnoses. • Scientists construct the most biologically accurate robotic legs yet built, closely mimicking the motion of human leg muscles. • 7 July – Non-human animals including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures including possess, according to the new.

• 9 July • Scientists discover a new molecule that could potentially make teeth -proof. • Scientists have, for the first time, directly detected part of the invisible 'scaffolding' of the universe, where more than half of all matter is believed to reside. • 10 July • A new production process created by Michigan State University researchers produces energy more than 20 times higher than existing methods. • In two new scientific articles, researchers refute NASA's claims that bacteria can successfully incorporate into their DNA. • American scientists develop an electrode-based capable of charging on the move. • It is reported that staying seated for long periods of time can reduce the human lifespan, unless mitigated by regular strenuous exercise. • 11 July • New research from the indicates that – already noted for its strength and conductivity – is capable of repairing its structure without human assistance by absorbing loose carbon atoms from its vicinity.

• NASA's space probe images a huge gaseous vortex shrouding the south pole of 's moon. • unveils its privately developed satellite launch vehicle, LauncherOne, and confirms that its spaceplane will soon begin powered test flights. • The discovers a fifth moon of the. • 13 July – A new survey shows that are far more threatened by than previously thought. • 15 July – It is reported that, also called guinea worm disease (GWD), is on the verge of being wiped out – becoming only the second human disease after to be eradicated. • 16 July – A major milestone in prevention is reached, as the approves an existing drug,, for uninfected adults at high risk of acquiring the disease.

• 19 July • An twice as large as reportedly breaks off from 's. • A new coating with self-repairing surface functionality has been developed.

The coating uses polymer stalks tipped with functional compounds to repair surface damage. • Astronomers have discovered the most ancient yet, dating back 10.7 billion years. • 20 July • A giant is discovered in, potentially offering enough drinkable water to sustain the country for centuries. • Using mice, researchers have grown from newly identified stem cells. 15 July 2012: the parasitic disease (extraction of a causative pictured) is reportedly close to being eradicated. • 23 July • American scientists create an artificial out of and lab-grown heart cells.

The construct is capable of swimming in a similar manner to real jellyfish when stimulated with an electric current. • Researchers report that 14% of British cases could be prevented by reducing public intakes. • Researchers create the first complete computer model of a living organism, fully simulating a bacterium. • 25 July • Satellite data reveals that 97% of Greenland's ice is undergoing a, the greatest level of ice melt ever recorded on the landmass. • A rift in the Antarctic rock as deep as the is increasing ice melt from the continent, researchers say. • The 's instrument reports that it has recorded 18 billion events since its installation in 2011.

• 26 July • The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice is at least 70% due to man-made global warming, according to a new study, and may even be up to 95% caused by humans – a far higher proportion than scientists had previously thought. • Using complex algorithms, researchers have found that songs over the last 50 years have become increasingly louder and more bland in terms of the chords, melodies and types of sound used. • Using a transplant, two men have been 'cured' of HIV infection. • Ageing workers are discovered to use a toxic crystalline structure to 'self-destruct', spraying enemy insects with toxins in defence of their.

• An American gunsmith produces the world's first functional plastic. • 27 July • In preparation for the beginning of the in London, British telecom companies create a hugely expanded network infrastructure in the city, including over 1,000 new and thirty additional mobile phone masts. • Swiss scientists claim that Earth's may have been formed in a glancing 'hit and run' collision with a large, fast-moving. • Japanese women have fallen behind Hong Kong citizens in for the first time in 25 years, dropping from 86.3 years in 2010 to 85.9 years in 2011. This was partly due to the of March 2011, according to a report by Japan's health ministry. • American scientists use to cleanly convert electricity into gas, potentially offering a new form of renewable energy.

• 29 July – Major technology companies predict that as many as 50 billion electronic devices may be worldwide by 2020, as automated machine-to-machine communication sees increasing use in retail and manufacturing. • 31 July – People with even minor symptoms of have a lower, according to a large-scale population-based study published in the British Medical Journal. August [ ] • 1 August – Researchers claim to have resolved one of the biggest controversies in research – discovering the specific cancer cells that seem to be responsible for the regrowth of tumours. 6 August 2012: 's, the largest such spacecraft yet launched, successfully lands on (artist's impression pictured). • 2 August • Scientists in announce that they have discovered what appears to be the remains of an ancient from the early period buried deep beneath the ice. • A study published in finds that female that produce much healthier offspring than non-cannibalizing spiders, supporting a link between sexual cannibalism in the animal kingdom and reproductive success.

• 3 August • in the has fallen again in the past 12 months, according to preliminary data published by Brazil's National Institute for Space Research. • American and Canadian researchers develop a medical spray which uses human skin cells and proteins to speed up the healing of open wounds such as. In medical trials, the 'skin spray' proved over 20% more effective than other ulcer treatments. • 6 August • 's mission successfully lands, the largest yet built, in Mars'. • 's government has approved the world's first commercial deep-sea mining project, despite strong environmental concerns. • 7 August – New brain research refutes the results of earlier studies that cast doubts on.

• 8 August • Anthropologists in northern unearth fossils of that lived approximately 2 million years ago. • Almost one-quarter of the world's population lives in regions where is being used up faster than it can be replenished, concludes a comprehensive global analysis of groundwater depletion published in Nature. • 9 August – American and South Korean engineers build a flexible, worm-like robot that moves by mimicking the contraction of an. The robot's is based on a – wire that expands and contracts in response to electric currents. It can squeeze through tight spaces and absorb heavy impacts, and could be used in future for covert reconnaissance missions. • 10 August – Engineers successfully test a new algorithm that allows autonomous to fly through complex structures without requiring navigation.

• 11 August • The reaches its peak for 2012, becoming widely visible in the Northern Hemisphere. • Experts declare the to be the 'greenest Olympics ever', praising its use of recycled materials and temporary venues, and noting the improvements made to London's transport infrastructure. • in the is disappearing at a far greater rate than previously expected, according to data from the first purpose-built satellite launched to study the thickness of the Earth's polar caps.

• 12 August – Scientists discover a single genetic switch that triggers the loss of brain connections in humans, and also causes in animal models. The findings could lead to more effective therapies. 14 August 2012: 's prototype (pictured in launch configuration) is destroyed following a test flight malfunction. • 13 August • South Korean researchers develop a cheap electronic ink based on tiny, capable of transmitting data over short distances. The printable invention could potentially revolutionise the field of.

• A new class of has been discovered that are resistant to bacterial attachment. These new materials could lead to a significant reduction in hospital infections and medical device failures. • reaches 50 gigawatts of capacity. • 14 August • 's prototype is destroyed during a powered test flight after a control fin failure. • Scientists from shrink the 1972 image of Swedish model to the width of a human hair.

It is hoped that this new miniaturization method will lead to more efficient or covert messages. • 15 August – In a major breakthrough, an international team of scientists has proven that addiction to and can be blocked, while at the same time increasing pain relief. • 16 August • Researchers have finally found a compound that may offer the first effective and -free pill for men.

• British scientists develop the world's first room-temperature, using a crystal of to modify a commercial medical laser to produce coherent emissions without the need for expensive magnets and coolant. The maser could be used to develop more sensitive medical scanners and radio telescopes. • scientists develop a flexible, -inspired robot capable of rapidly camouflaging or advertising itself by pumping liquid dyes into channels on its surface. The relatively inexpensive robots could be used in a variety of fields, from surgery to search-and-rescue to covert operations. • 17 August • and publish a pioneering paper on -mediated programmable. • A group of South Korean scientists has reportedly developed a carbon battery for capable of charging up to 120 times faster than standard batteries.

• Researchers have demonstrated a way to potentially 'hack into' a person's brain, using technology. • Researchers at Harvard's successfully store 5.5 petabits of data – around 700 terabytes – in, breaking the previous DNA data density record by a thousand times. • 18 August – Scientists in the United States report that they have found a new family of in the caves of and. It is the first such discovery in North America for more than 140 years. • 19 August – Scientists are reportedly close to developing a cure. • 20 August – The first evidence of a planet's destruction by its has been discovered by an international team of astronomers.

21 August 2012: a study of major coastal cities asserts that (skyline pictured) may be highly vulnerable to large-scale flooding in the near future. • 21 August • researchers report that a could turn or waste products into a -compatible transportation fuel. • A new study of nine coastal cities around the world suggests that is most vulnerable to serious flooding later this century. • Life in the world's oceans is facing a potential, largely due to human activity, say researchers.

• Researchers have developed an 'electronic nose' prototype that can detect small quantities of harmful airborne substances. • Scientists have identified the crucial role of a protein called Mof in the of. The protein helps prime stem cells to become specialized cells in mice. • Analysts report that robotic technology is seeing increased use in the global industry, as mining and drilling companies seek to reduce personnel costs by installing autonomous trains, trucks, drills and. • 22 August • unveils the world's largest commercial, boasting four times the resolution of high-definition screens. • names the 's Martian landing site ', in honour of the American author, who died in June 2012 aged 91. Meanwhile, Curiosity conducts a successful short-range test drive, proving that its mobility system is in nominal condition.

• A large-scale test of smart vehicle data sharing begins in. Over the course of the year-long trial, around 2,800 vehicles will be fitted with vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communications, allowing them to share data about their movements and alert their drivers if they are at risk of collision. Such technology could be used in future to drastically reduce traffic accidents. • 23 August – New research links the origins of with the spread of farming from approximately 8,000-9,500 years ago.

• 25 August • NASA's crosses the and enters, the first human-made object to do so. • Researchers discover a promising new drug target for the treatment and prevention of. • 26 August •, at the time the world's oldest living human, celebrates her 116th birthday, becoming to indisputably do so. • Miniature surgical nets could be used to safely extract dangerous from the brains of patients, potentially alleviating symptoms such as speech loss and paralysis, according to two new medical studies.

• 27 August – Young people who smoke run the risk of a significant and irreversible reduction in their, according to one of the largest cannabis studies ever carried out. • 28 August – Three decades after its last sighting, the is declared extinct. 29 August 2012: scientists claim that large volumes of could be trapped beneath the ice. • Scientists report the discovery of two new orbiting a – the first such planetary system yet discovered. • fails to extend, according to the results of a long-term study. • Large volumes of – a potent – could be locked beneath the ice, according to a new study. • Better management of agricultural systems could provide enough food for the expected by 2050, according to a new study.

However, the study ignores factors such as and geopolitics. • A cost analysis of the technologies needed to transport materials into the to reduce the amount of sunlight hitting Earth and therefore reduce the effects of global climate change shows that they are both feasible and affordable. • In a world first, astronomers at report the detection of a specific sugar molecule,, in a distant star system. The molecule was found around the binary IRAS, which is located 400 light years from Earth. Glycolaldehyde is needed to form, or, which is similar in function to.

This finding suggests that complex organic molecules may form in stellar systems prior to the formation of planets, eventually arriving on young planets early in their formation. • Scientists at the University of Liverpool are leading a £1.65 million project to produce and test the first for treating HIV/AIDS. Guano Apes Proud Like A God. • 30 August – scientists claim that a breakthrough drug cures all strains of. Clinical trials on humans are set to start in 2013. • 31 August • Researchers successfully perform the first implantation of an early prototype with 24 electrodes. • Swedish begin a project to collect thousands of 3D images of household objects which can be used to improve the navigation capabilities of. • A gaze-tracking that can be controlled by the eye movements of users is unveiled at a Berlin trade show.

September [ ] • 1 September • When they encounter a fallen bird, call out and gather around the body in a -like display, scientists discover. • scientists report that (PAHs), subjected to conditions, are transformed, through, and, into more complex. This process is described as 'a step along the path toward and, the raw materials of and, respectively'. Furthermore, as a result of these transformations, the PAHs lose their which could be one of the reasons 'for the lack of PAH detection in, particularly the outer regions of cold, dense clouds or the upper molecular layers of.' • 2 September – Austrian scientists develop a method which can construct complex microscopic structures out of individual molecules. • 3 September – Swiss engineers build a versatile, self-righting all-terrain legged robot, similar to ' military robot.

5 September 2012: the most detailed analysis of the yet produced is published. • 4 September • The UK estimates that almost all British children born in 2012 could, assuming recent improvements in healthcare and living standards continue. • A formal study finds little evidence of health benefits from. • British scientists develop a smart, pressure-mapping with an optical layer that can raise the alarm if it detects sudden falls. The carpet can also map and record walking patterns over time, allowing doctors to track movement problems in elderly patients. • A physically active lifestyle can lower the risk of by up to 13%, according to the largest-ever study of its kind.

• due to rising sea levels may have been 'dramatically underestimated', according to a new scientific model. • 5 September • An international research team achieves over a record-breaking distance of 143 kilometres (89 mi) through free space. • Scientists publish (in, and elsewhere) the most detailed analysis to date of the, revealing that much more of our genetic code is biologically active than previously thought, and largely disproving the notion of. • Increased precipitation and river discharge in the Arctic has the potential to speed climate change, according to the results of a new study. • A new report by suggests that the full impact of climate change on future food prices is being greatly underestimated. • NASA's spacecraft departs the asteroid for the, which it is expected to reach in 2015.

• 6 September • Japan sets a new world record for depth, reaching 2,111 metres (6,926 ft) below the seafloor off. • A regular intake of, together with moderate exercise, significantly helps to slow aging decline, according to a recent trial. • Researchers in the US produce the shortest-ever pulses, with a duration of 67. Such 'attosecond science' will make it possible to observe some of the briefest microscopic events in the universe, such as moving in their orbitals, in real time. • 's cheetah legged robot prototype is recorded running faster than, the world's fastest sprinter, in a treadmill test. • 7 September • begins deliveries of its HV-100, a commercial automaton capable of navigating around obstacles and working in teams to perform horticultural tasks such as pruning and spraying crops. • Flooded mines could supply 40% of 's heating, say geologists.

• 9 September – If it is fully harnessed, could easily meet all of the world's long-term electricity demand, according to a new study. 12 September 2012: the monkey species is formally described. • 10 September • A new scientific model suggests that even more could harbour life than previously estimated. The model assumes that subsurface liquid water could host alien life, in addition to the surface water that scientists are searching for on nearby exoplanets. • Caribbean are on the verge of collapse, with less than 10% of the reef area showing live coral cover. • 12 September • UK researchers report a major advance in the treatment of, using to successfully restore hearing in animals for the first time. • A new of is identified in the.

Found in remote forests, it is only the second new monkey species to be discovered in Africa in 28 years. • reveals details of its new, a microchip family offering unprecedented computing power and energy efficiency for consumer electronics. The first commercial Haswell-powered devices are expected to emerge in 2013. • unveils a for a 3D system that would allow real-time video to be projected on the walls of any room, creating a 360-degree game environment to immerse players. • 13 September • Small spherical 'blueberries' found in Martian rocks may have been formed by, possibly indicating that in the distant past. • reports that global rates have decreased significantly in recent years.

Whereas approximately 12 million children died before their fifth birthday in 1990, by 2011 this figure had dropped to 6.9 million. This improvement is reportedly due to a combination of rising living standards, foreign aid and broader.

• An team in has published single-molecule images so detailed that the type of between their atoms can be discerned. • Scientists identify five genes that determine the form of the, in a find that could lead to police identification sketches based solely on DNA findings. • 14 September • Scientists demonstrated that a brain implant can improve cognitive function in primates for the first time ever. IOP • UK weather forecasters can predict extreme winter weather in future seasons with more confidence, due to a new analytical computer model. 17 September 2012: after nine months studying the 's gravitational field, 's satellites report that the lunar crust is much thinner than previously estimated. • 17 September • A warp drive to achieve, a supposedly impossible goal, may not be as unrealistic as once thought, scientists say. • Scientists working on the have achieved a major breakthrough in mapping the human brain, identifying key principles that determine -scale connectivity and making it possible to accurately predict the locations of synapses in the.

• 's twin gravitational research satellites reveal that the has a much thinner crust than previously assumed. • 18 September • 's high-resolution camera begins operation in, surveying distant galaxies for evidence of the action of. • -based company Rethink Robotics releases its Baxter industrial robot, the first designed to apply common sense and to factory operations. • Doctors in Sweden have performed the world's first mother-to-daughter transplants. • 19 September • Researchers at the develop a method for cheaply printing -based using a standard. The invention could allow the creation of 'smart wallpaper' with built-in video displays.

• Arctic sea ice has reached its minimum extent for the year, setting a record for the lowest cover since satellite records began in the 1970s. The 2012 extent has fallen to 3.41 million km 2 (1.32 million sq mi), 50% lower than the 1979–2000 average. • When a huge meteor collided with Earth about 2.5 million years ago and fell into the southern Pacific Ocean, it not only could have generated a massive tsunami, but may also have plunged the world into the, a new study suggests. • A new study reveals that fast-flowing and narrow have the potential to trigger massive changes in the ice sheet and contribute to rapid ice-sheet decay and sea-level rise. 19 September 2012: sea ice cover in the reaches the lowest extent ever recorded.

• 20 September •, an American manufacturer of, opens the world's first 3D printer retail outlet in New York City. • Elevated levels on humans cause decreased cognitive ability, starting at 600 ppm. • 22 September – NASA reveals plans for the 'Gateway Spacecraft', a permanent outpost beyond the Moon, to be constructed from leftover components of the. • 23 September • Researchers have shown that many species of will be unable to survive even a modest increase in temperature. Many are now close to or beyond their temperature safety margin, and very few have the genetic ability to adapt to climate change. • Japanese researchers achieve a new world record for data transmission, demonstrating one--per-second fiber transmission over 50 kilometres (31 mi): equivalent to sending 5,000 HDTV videos per second over a single fiber.

• The first continent-wide estimate of African distribution and its changes over time has revealed a dramatic decline in ape habitats. • 24 September • UK doctors report that a new '-like' respiratory has been identified. The disease has infected at least two people in the Middle East and killed one. • A major reassessment of 18 years of satellite observations provides a new, more detailed view of the changes in around the world. Incorporating the data from a number of spacecraft, the study re-affirms that ocean waters globally are rising by just over 3mm per year. • The entire field of is set to switch to open-access publishing, a milestone in the push to make research results freely available to readers. • 25 September • New data from the suggests that the is surrounded by a gigantic halo of hot gas, with a far greater radius than the galaxy itself, and a roughly equal mass.

If the halo's dimensions are confirmed, its concentration of mass may explain the apparent lack of matter in the galaxy. • China's first, a retrofitted ex- vessel named the, enters naval service. • 26 September – An international team of scientists identifies a key factor responsible for declining repair during ageing, and discovers how to halt the process in mice with a common drug. • 27 September • Researchers have shown for the first time the trapping action of the pimpernel,, a.

• NASA scientists announce the 's discovery of evidence of ancient flowing liquid water on. • Researchers demonstrate a new type of biodegradable electronics technology with wide applications in medical implants, environmental monitors and consumer devices. • begins development of the Human Support Robot, a voice-controlled domestic robot designed to help elderly and disabled people by moving objects, reaching high shelves and opening doors and curtains. • 30 September – Climate change will lead to smaller, according to a new study led by fisheries scientists at the. Under a high emissions scenario, the maximum body weight most fish species reach could decline by up to a quarter by 2050.

3 October 2012: scientists discover that the (pictured), best known for its lethal venom, also produces a highly effective. • 1 October – and are able to change the elasticity of within their bodies, and could hold the key to maintaining a youthful appearance, according to scientists at Queen Mary, University of London.

• 2 October – Under a high-emissions climate change scenario, global sea levels could rise nearly 7 metres (23 ft) by, according to new research. • 3 October • In preparation for a attempt, the British team conducts a successful test in.

The rocket will operate in tandem with a jet engine to propel the Bloodhound vehicle at 1,000 miles (1,600 km) per hour during its record attempt in 2014. • Scientists report that the venomous produces a highly effective natural.

• A demonstrates a cheap and efficient method of printing complex electronics onto flexible substrates. • 4 October • A new genetic test can fully of a newborn baby in just 50 hours, a major improvement over the usual month-long sequencing process.

The test can screen for 3,500 genetic diseases, allowing critically ill infants to be diagnosed and treated much more effectively. • unveils the NSC-2015, a prototype electric that can park itself, understand road markings and quickly report attempted thefts. A commercial version is planned for 2015. • 5 October • successfully tests technology which enables to conduct autonomously.

• researchers make a breakthrough in teaching a computer to understand human brain function. The scientists used datasets to train a computer to predict the category of an image originally viewed by five different people. • 7 October – Expanding production of – a common ingredient in processed foods, soaps and personal care products – is driving destruction and massive emissions, according to a new study led by researchers at Stanford and Yale universities. • 8 October • 's launches on its first operational resupply mission to the, following a successful demonstration mission in May 2012. • A variant in a gene involved with inflammation and the immune response is linked with a decreased risk of, according to researchers at the National Cancer Institute in. • Researchers have found what they claim is the first yet discovered of an ancient attacking prey caught in its web. The fossil dates back between 97 million and 110 million years.

• A new drug, Solanezumab, slows the pace of memory loss in sufferers by 34%, according to the results of two trials. • The 2012 is awarded jointly to and, for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become. 8–10 October 2012: the year's in physics, chemistry and medicine (medal pictured) are awarded. • 9 October • tests a sensor bracelet that can quickly recognise a wide variety of human hand gestures. The invention could be used as a general-purpose remote control for electronics, allowing devices to be activated and controlled with simple hand movements.

• The 2012 is awarded jointly to and 'for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems'. Their work may eventually help make possible.

• 10 October • researchers develop a new software system capable of estimating emissions across entire urban landscapes, all the way down to roads and individual buildings. Previously, scientists quantified carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at a much broader level. • SpaceX's Dragon spacecraft, becoming the first commercially contracted re-supply vehicle to do so.

• The 2012 is awarded jointly to and for their work on -coupled receptors. • The begins funding the development of a versatile robot capable of adapting everyday materials to rescue trapped humans. • 11 October • In the largest-ever genetic study of and other, an international consortium has identified 21 new gene variants associated with risks of heart disease and metabolic disorders. The findings expand the list of potential targets for drugs and other treatments for lipid-related cardiovascular disease, a leading global cause of death and disability. • New research led by Yale University scientists suggests that a rocky planet twice Earth's size orbiting a nearby star is composed largely of.

• 12 October – Europe launches the third and fourth of its, making it possible for the Galileo system to be fully tested prior to the start of operations in 2015. The system is planned to become fully operational, with 27 active satellites, by 2020. • 14 October • Austrian performs, jumping from a pressurized capsule 24 miles (39 km) above. Baumgartner became the first human to without an aircraft during his jump.

• Scientists claim that water molecules found in lunar soil could be produced by the reacting with the Moon's surface. 17 October 2012: scientists discover a new (artist's impression pictured) orbiting Earth's nearest alien star,. • 15 October • Astronomers have confirmed the existence of a -like that has four suns, making it the first quadruple star system ever discovered. • September 2012 was tied as the warmest September ever recorded globally, according to data from the. • New research clearly shows that there is an increasing tendency for to form when the climate is warmer, as it has been in recent years. • Researchers from demonstrate new techniques for stretching to create carbon composites that can be used as stronger, lighter materials in a wide variety of applications. • demonstrates its X1, a robotic assistance suit based on its.

The X1 exoskeleton is designed to assist with walking, and can also be set to provide walking exercise for able-bodied astronauts. • 17 October • is discovered orbiting Earth's closest stellar neighbour,.

The new planet is believed to be too hot to sustain life, but there is a high probability that the system contains other planetary bodies, including potentially Earthlike ones. Windows Vista Home Basic Oem Fujitsu Siemens Iso. • Medical scientists report, on the basis of a decade-long involving nearly 15,000 older male physicians, that subjects taking a daily were associated with 8 percent fewer compared to subjects taking a.

• A drug made from a plant known as 'thunder god vine,' or lei gong teng, that has long been used in, wipes out in mice, and may soon be tested in humans. • 83% of 's palms are threatened with extinction, putting the livelihoods of local people at risk, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species released today by the (IUCN). • 18 October • A -like organ grown from scratch in a laboratory has been shown to work in animals – an achievement that could lead to the production of spare kidneys for patients from. • Extinctions during the early period left Earth a virtual wasteland due to extreme heat, a new study suggests.

• Using a new imaging technique, based on the detection of calcium ions in neurons, neuroscientists have developed a way to monitor how brain cells coordinate with each other to control specific behaviors. • For the first time, an assembly of has been synthesised that is capable of producing a coordinated contraction, similar to the movements of biological muscle fibres. • 19 October – The announces that it will launch a new satellite in 2017 to study and other large exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. The will orbit the Earth at an altitude of about 500 miles (800 km).

22 October 2012: a (pictured) is used to perform the UK's first robot-assisted. • 22 October • Engineers develop an ultra-high-density form of, using particles to store up to 100 terabytes of data in a single tape cartridge. The invention is intended to store the huge volumes of astronomical data that the will generate upon its inception in 2024. • British doctors use the remote-controlled to perform the UK's first robotic.

• 24 October • As much as 44 billion tons of nitrogen and 850 billion tons of carbon stored in Arctic could be released over the next century, according to a new study led by the. This is roughly the amount of carbon already stored in the atmosphere today. • – drinking less during the week and more on the weekends – significantly reduces the structural integrity of the adult brain, according to a new study. • A new method to prevent the inheritance of certain genetic diseases has been successfully demonstrated in human cells. It is believed that this research, along with other efforts, will pave the way for future clinical trials in human subjects.

• The world's first commercial opens in. The farm maximizes its growing space by using 120 high-rise cultivation towers, and can produce half a ton of vegetables a day.

• 25 October – launches, the most fundamental update to its Windows operating system in 17 years. • 26 October • The oldest tomb yet discovered is found in.

The ancient tomb is believed to date back to between 400 BC and 700 BC. • Scientists have recovered the sounds of music and laughter from the oldest playable American recording, dating back to 1878. • 27 October – Women who give up smoking by the age of 30 will almost completely evade the risks of dying young from -related diseases, according to a study of more than a million women.

• 28 October • The unmanned successfully completes its first fully operational resupply mission to the (ISS), landing intact in the Pacific Ocean after over two weeks docked with the ISS. • British scientists invent a simple liquid-based test that can accurately diagnose diseases such as cancer or HIV by detecting small concentrations of such as anomalous proteins.

• IBM researchers demonstrate the initial steps toward commercial fabrication of as a successor to -based electronics. • 30 October • Britain's first mobile network is launched, offering high-speed mobile data services in 11 major cities.

• scientists report that the has performed the first of at the ' site. The results from the rover's revealed the presence of several minerals, including, and, and suggested that the Martian soil in the sample was similar to the 'weathered ' of. • IBM's supercomputer is to help train doctors at a medical school in Cleveland, Ohio. •, a leading designer and manufacturer of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) solar power, has achieved a milestone in the industry by successfully converting more than a third of sunlight into electricity. Its figure of 33.5% efficiency broke the previous record of 30.3%.

• in the US will be more than double today's level by 2040, according to a new study. • 31 October – Scientists in the Netherlands have demonstrated a form of self-healing that uses limestone-producing bacteria. November [ ]. 6 November 2012: scientists report that regular leisure-time exercise can extend human by over 4 years. • 1 November • Climate scientists are biased not toward 'alarmism' (as the media often claims), but rather the reverse: toward cautious and conservative estimates, according to a new study. • A gene that is associated with regeneration of injured nerve cells has been identified by scientists at and. • China announces plans to construct the world's first 100- by 2015.

• are rising faster than expected from global warming, due to critical feedbacks missing from earlier models, according to the. • China reveals its second prototype, the J-13, which is a smaller and faster version of the existing. • 2 November – Glybera becomes the first approved by regulatory authorities in the Western world. Commercial roll-out is expected in late 2013. • 5 November • New research suggests that just one or two individual virus particles attack a skin cell in the first stage of an outbreak, resulting in a bottleneck in which the infection may be vulnerable to medical treatment. • A 15-year research project has succeeded in curbing the growth of, one of the most common life-threatening genetic diseases, which affects 12.5 million people worldwide. Previously, only the symptoms of the disease could be treated.

• A report in the November 6 issue of Current Biology offers the first complete description of the spade-toothed whale ( ), a species previously known only from a few bones. The description is based on two individuals – an adult female and her male calf – who became stranded and died on a New Zealand beach in 2010.

• 6 November • scientists develop a -playing robot called NimbRo-OP, intended to develop new capabilities for humanoid bipedal robots, such as using tools, climbing stairs, and using human facial expressions, gestures and body language for communication. • Targeting a single chemical inside cancerous cells could one day lead to a single test for a broad range of cancers, researchers say. The same system could then be used to deliver precision treatments. • In the largest ever study of its kind, an international team of astronomers establishes that the rate of in the universe is now only 1/30th of its peak, and that this decline is set to continue. • Leisure-time physical activity extends by as much as 4.5 years, according to a study by the National Cancer Institute.

Even half of the recommended weekly exercise can add 1.8 years. • 7 November • Canadian researchers working to develop the world's first vaccine have cleared a major hurdle. Initial results from a Phase I trial have shown no adverse effects, while significantly boosting immunity. The vaccine could be commercially available in five years.

• Human diseases could soon be modeled in an electronic 'organ-on-a-chip', with a new generation of research to replace animal testing. • Astronomers report that, a 42 light-years away from Earth, is within the of its host star and may be 'just right to support life'. • Rising temperatures due to climate change could mean wild becomes extinct within 70 years, posing a risk to the genetic sustainability of one of the world's basic commodities, according to new research. • 8 November • Due to insufficient rates of, the world is on track for 6 °C (11 °F) of climatic warming by the year 2100, according to a new report. • Scientists debate the scientific basis and claims to novelty of a proposal to use the of light and radio waves to massively boost wireless data transfer. • engineers develop a battery which uses within the human inner ear to provide a steady electric current.

• robots are used to teach primary school children in a groundbreaking trial in the UK. • scientists have succeeded in removing the extra copy of in cell cultures derived from a person with, a condition in which the body's cells contain three copies of chromosome 21 rather than the usual pair. • American climatologists report that the record-breaking continues to worsen, with over 19% of the contiguous United States suffering from extreme drought, and levels declining nationwide. • 9 November • The develops a tactical capability to allow it to rapidly manufacture critical components on the battlefield. • demonstrates software that translates spoken English into Chinese while preserving the speaker's. • 11 November – Scientists develop a highly efficient capable of rendering objects invisible to. 12 November 2012: declares the US (pictured) to be the world's most powerful computer.

• 12 November • The American is declared the world's most powerful, capable of performing 17.59 quadrillion. Overall, the United States has the most supercomputers listed in the, with 251; China is in second place, with 72. • The detects an extremely rare particle decay event, casting doubt on the popular theory of. • 13 November • occurs.

• A gene is found which makes the virtually immortal, and could extend human lifespans. • Physicists conduct the first from one object to another, potentially allowing the development of. • 14 November • An international team of researchers discovers a gene that helps explain how humans evolved from. Scientists say the gene – called – appears to have played a crucial role in human brain development, and may shed light on how humans learned to use tools and language. • Even moderate drinking in can affect a child's IQ, according to a new study using data from over 4,000 mothers and their children. • A gene that nearly triples the risk of has been discovered by an international team including researchers from Mayo Clinic.

It is the most potent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's identified in the past 20 years. • Scientists of the. The similarities between the pig and human genomes mean that the new data may have wide applications in the study and treatment of human genetic diseases. • Astronomers discover a wandering, starless drifting through space around 100 light-years from Earth.

• Researchers at the American (NIST) prove that single-wall may help protect DNA molecules from damage. • 15 November • Scientists warn that the lethal virus can spread between species as an. However, they emphasize that these aerosol particles can only travel short distances. • An efficient, high-volume technique for testing potential drug treatments for Alzheimer's disease has uncovered an organic compound that restored motor function and longevity to fruit flies with the disease. • New made from nanotech yarns and infused with can lift more than 100,000 times their own weight, and generate 85 times more mechanical power than the natural muscle of the same dimensions, according to scientists. • If global temperatures were to rise just 1 degree Celsius, the would shrink by 25 percent and produce 65 percent less annual melt water, according to research published in Geophysical Research Letters.

• The announces plans to replace its trained with robotic submarines such as the by 2017. • 16 November • Rat heart cells are used by scientists to power tiny, crawling 'bio-robots'. • New research has identified a common gene variant which influences when a person wakes up each day, as well as the time of day they are most likely to die. • 18 November – A biodegradable nanoparticle has been developed which can stealthily deliver an antigen, tricking the into stopping its attack on and preventing in mice. • 19 November • Scientists report a huge decline in UK birdlife – from 210 million nesting birds in 1966, down to 166 million in 2012. • scientists heal paralyzed dogs by injecting them with cells grown from their nasal linings. Many of the 23 injured dogs treated with the experimental therapy regained some use of their legs even 12 months after their injury, and scientists believe that human patients could be treated in a similar fashion.

• A new tumor-tracking technique may improve outcomes for patients. • IBM researchers have simulated 530 billion and 100 trillion on a supercomputer. 21 November 2012: in a breakthrough for, scientists send encoded quantum signals using a standard commercial, potentially allowing near-unbreakable quantum data security to be commercialised.

• 20 November • scientists report (via an interview) that the Mars rover, apparently based on a, has provided, according to (), 'data that is gonna be one for the history books. It's looking really good.' Later, a NASA spokesperson said the discovery 'won't be earthshaking, but it will be interesting.'

Nonetheless, the scientists are presently verifying their results and expect to make an official announcement at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, which will take place between 3 December and 7 December in San Francisco, according to Grotzinger in an interview with. The news is later played down by NASA. • More than 1,000 -fired power plants are being planned worldwide, new research from the World Resources Institute has revealed, with the majority being constructed in China and India. • The level of in the atmosphere reached 390.9 parts per million in 2011, a new record high, according to the. Between 1990 and 2011, there was a 30% increase in radiative forcing. • Physicists have shown that synthetic membrane channels can be constructed through '.' • Scientists have developed a computer chip that mimics a dog's nose.

It is capable of rapidly identifying trace amounts of vapour molecules, providing continuous real-time monitoring at concentrations of just 1 part per billion (ppb). • 21 November • For the first time, encrypted quantum signals are successfully sent down a conventional fiber, instead of requiring a dedicated individual cable. This development could allow, which offers near-impenetrable data security, to become available to the general public.

• The effects of climate change are already evident in Europe and the situation is set to get worse, the European Environment Agency has warned. • A United Nations report – the – says global attempts to limit CO 2 emissions are falling well short of what is needed to stem dangerous climate change.

• For the first time, scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have defined key events that take place early in the process of cellular aging. They have shown that the acidity of the is critical to aging and the stable functioning of.

• The printing of 3D tissue has taken a major step forward with the creation of a novel hybrid printer that simplifies the process of creating implantable. • (ESA) member states agree at their ministerial council to a 10.1-billion-euro programme of activities, including a planned upgrade to the rocket. • 23 November • Footprints believed to have been made by the giant flightless bird indicate that it was a 'gentle herbivore' and not a fierce carnivore, scientists say. • Having a job with poor working conditions can be just as bad for a person's mental health as being unemployed, according to new research published in. • 25 November • A Chinese jet fighter conducts the first landing on the country's first, the.

This milestone marks a major step forward in China's efforts to increase its naval power. • Pathological changes typical of Alzheimer's disease have been significantly reduced in mice by blockade of an immune system transmitter. 26 November 2012: a (example pictured) becomes the first large cargo vessel to attempt a winter crossing of the. As the Arctic sea ice melts in coming years, the sea route may become increasingly viable for large ships. • 26 November • A becomes the first ship of its size to attempt a winter crossing of the.

As Arctic ice cover reduces due to, the Arctic sea route may become increasingly viable for large ships. • Researchers, including NASA scientists and engineers from, have demonstrated a new concept for a reliable nuclear reactor that could be used on space flights. The Demonstration Using Flattop Fissions (DUFF) experiment produced 24 watts of electricity.

• 27 November • covering almost a quarter of the Northern Hemisphere contains 1.7 trillion tonnes of carbon, twice that currently in the atmosphere, and could significantly amplify global warming should thawing accelerate as expected, according to a new report released today by the (UNEP). • A review reveals that affects even more than previously though, with the list of drugs with potentially serious interactions more than doubling since 2012. Users of heart medication are particularly vulnerable. • 28 November • The project achieves a key engine design milestone.

• Astronomers observe. • Previous estimates of sea level rise have been underestimated, while estimates of global temperature rises appear to be accurate, according to a new study published in the journal Environmental Research Letters. • A completely new method of manufacturing the smallest structures in electronics could make their manufacture thousands of times quicker, allowing for cheaper. The findings have been published in the latest issue of Nature. • Scientists have achieved a major breakthrough in deciphering bread 's genetic code. This could lead to new varieties that are more productive and better able to cope with disease, drought and other stresses that cause crop losses. • American engineers build a capable of manufacturing tools from lunar, potentially allowing future astronauts to manufacture equipment on-site using lunar or Martian rock.

• engineers develop a, which technology company plans to release commercially for sufferers in 2014. 29 November 2012: NASA reports the discovery of on the surface of (pictured).

• 29 November • Scientists discover the second-largest ever detected, with a mass 17 billion times that of the Sun. However, the black hole resides in an anomalously small galaxy. • NASA reports that its probe has discovered and organic compounds on the surface of. • Experts have combined data from multiple satellites and aircraft to produce the most comprehensive and accurate assessment to date of ice sheet losses in and and their contributions to sea level rise. Ice sheet loss at both poles is increasing, the study finds. • A study published in Nature states that has accelerated rapidly in recent centuries, faster than can operate.

• 30 November • British scientists develop a method of safely cultivating medicinal from the blood of adult patients, potentially allowing each patient to have a personalised source of stem cells. • Italian scientists publish the first direct images of, which were produced using a. The images provide photographic proof of DNA's double-helix structure, and could further scientific understanding of the compound's function. • At the Euromold in Germany, manufacturers display numerous advances in commercial 3D printing technology, including a device that can rapidly print an entire.

• MIT researchers develop a -inspired modular robot capable of magnetically folding itself into a wide variety of shapes, potentially heralding future devices that can reconfigure themselves for nearly any purpose. December [ ] • 1 December – The United States government announces the first major offering of Atlantic coastal sites for offshore developments. Around 432 square miles (1,120 km 2) will be sold off in 2013.

• 2 December • Researchers state that they have identified the point of origin of the genes that later enabled human thought and reasoning. This development, 500 million years ago, later granted humans the ability to learn complex skills, analyse situations and think flexibly. • Global carbon dioxide emissions are projected to have risen further in 2012, reaching a new record high of 35.6 billion tonnes, according to figures from the Global Carbon Project. • 3 December – NASA reports that its Mars rover has performed its first extensive, revealing the presence of, and in the.

• 4 December • A British energy firm announces plans to construct Africa's largest plant in. • NASA announces that it plans to launch in 2020, following the success of its Curiosity rover. • Using a simple 'drag-and-drop' computer interface and DNA self-assembly techniques, researchers have developed a new approach for drug development that could drastically reduce the time required to create and test medications. •, the world's oldest living human and the last surviving person born in 1896, dies aged 116.

5 December 2012: scientists implant the first device (X-ray image pictured) to be used for the treatment of in the United States. • 5 December • Paleontologists announce the discovery of what is likely to be the oldest known. Is believed to have lived 10-15 million years before the previous earliest known dinosaur specimens.

• ' autonomous Wave Glider nautical robot completes a record-breaking voyage from San Francisco to Australia. The data-gathering robot, powered by and wave energy, survived storms and attacks during its year-long journey. • In the first such operation in the United States, medical researchers implant a -like device into the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient in the early stages of the disease. The device, which provides and has already been used by sufferers of, could boost memory and reverse cognitive decline. • A team develops a curved display.

Researchers say the prototype could be used in medicine, or lead to adaptable 'in-eye' sunglasses. • 6 December • The announces plans for expeditions by 2020, with flights to the Moon starting at around $750 million per person. • Scientists identify the mechanism that allows – a single-celled parasite – to pass from the human gut to the brain, where it may cause suicidal thoughts and risk-taking. • 7 December • An interactive map showing the location of every German bomb during World War II is created. • A young British girl successfully receives a pioneering bone replacement treatment to restore her damaged spine. The operation, the first of its kind ever attempted in Europe, used bone taken from the child's legs to replace her lower, which were missing due to a rare and potentially lethal genetic condition.

• NASA's discovers -bearing deposits on the surface of Mars, indicating the past presence of liquid water. • A new study shows that with 'near perfect sensitivity', anatomical brain images alone can accurately diagnose chronic,,,, or familial risks for major depression.

• 8 December – The 1997 on the limitation of emissions is extended until 2020, having previously been set to expire by the end of 2012. • 9 December – establishes the world's largest sanctuary, protecting all shark species from fishing in an area of 4.7 million square kilometres.

• 10 December • The first close-up footage of the, one of the rarest cat species on Earth, is released. • Scientists succeed in making the of older people act like younger cells again, simply by adding more filler to the fiber-filled area around the cells. • Researchers create a shape-shifting that could revolutionise the treatment of wounds. The liquid material could be infused with drugs, then shaped to fit perfectly inside a wound.

• 11 December • The launches its robotic on its third classified long-duration mission. • Numerous major Japanese companies, including, demonstrate new specialist robots for cleaning up the. • 12 December • conducts its first successful orbital launch, placing the satellite into low Earth orbit. • Astronomers report that the most distant known,, is now estimated to be even further away than previously believed.

The galaxy, which is estimated to have formed around '380 million years' after the (about 13.75 billion years ago), is approximately 13.37 billion from Earth. • announces funding for a medical foam technology that can rapidly staunch severe on the battlefield.

• 13 December • Scientists identify a new species of, the, which is found to have a toxic bite. • China's unmanned probe successfully performs a close flyby of the asteroid, in the first such attempt by a Chinese spacecraft. • Physicists report the constancy, over space and time, of a basic of nature that supports the. The scientists, studying molecules in a distant, found the change (∆μ/μ) in the μ to be equal to '(0.0 ± 1.0) × 10−7 at z = 0.89' and consistent with 'a '. • 14 December – British researchers partially of that is killing off across Europe.

• 16 December – American scientists use a genetically modified virus to partially convert the muscle of into cells which govern the heart's rhythm, effectively creating a biological. If this development can be applied to humans, heart conditions could be treated without the need for expensive medical implants and their attendant maintenance surgeries. • 17 December • Researchers at the develop a robotic arm that can be precisely controlled by paralyzed patients using a set of implants. • NASA's twin lunar satellites deorbit and are intentionally crashed into the surface of the Moon, marking the end of their year-long gravity research mission. • The begins flight certification tests, in preparation for its planned commercial release in 2013.

• 19 December • Astronomers report that the nearby star hosts five, including one world believed to be within the star's. • The final orbital spaceflight of 2012 occurs, marking the, and the 78th overall. • Chinese scientists discover fossil evidence which shows that the extinct genus survived in China until as recently as 1,000 BC. The genus was previously believed to have disappeared by 8,000 BC. • 20 December – NASA scientists release the latest results and an image of the very early universe. The nine-year WMAP data shows '13.772+/-0.059'-billion-year-old temperature fluctuations and a temperature range of ± 200.

In addition, the study finds that 95 percent of the early universe is composed of and, the curvature of space is less than 0.4 percent of 'flat', and the universe emerged from the 'about 400 million years' after the. • 21 December • A ' therapy which uses viruses concealed within to attack tumours is successfully used to eliminate in mice. However, human trials have yet to be conducted. • As predicted by scientists, 21 December 2012 passes without any form of apocalyptic event, despite. 24 December 2012: British medical researchers discover two genes that are thought to greatly increase the risk of ( pictured). • 24 December • Scientists analyse the genomes of individuals with a high familial risk of, and discover two flawed genes that may contribute to the disease.

• American researchers report that their experiments with may yield future materials that can be directly controlled and re-shaped in real time. • 26 December • The world's longest line enters operation in China. The 2,298-kilometre (1,428 mi) railway links with. •, having been on the verge of, are now making a comeback in India and Thailand, according to the. • 28 December – engineers publish a design for a future mission to the Martian moon, incorporating both an orbiting satellite and spherical surface rovers.

• 31 December – A NASA-supported study suggests that manned spaceflight may harm the brains of astronauts and accelerate the onset of. IISE Top 10 New Species [ ] The Top 10 New Species 2013 was announced on 22 May 2013 by the, commemorating unique species discovered during 2012. The ten selected new species were. 30 December 2012:, a -winning Italian neurologist, dies aged 103.

January [ ] • 3 January –, American (b. • 6 January –, American rocket engineer (b. • 12 January –, Norwegian quaternary geologist (b. • 21 January –, American biologist and geneticist (b.

) February [ ] • 16 February –, Australian (b. • 19 February –,, winner of the 1975 (b. • 24 February –, British (b. March [ ] • 10 March –, American atmospheric chemist, winner of the 1995 (b. • 24 March – Sir, New Zealand physicist (b. April [ ] • 8 April –, and political activist (b.

• 20 April –, American chemist, scientist and businessman (b. • 29 April –, -born inventor of the, recipient (b. May [ ] • 12 May •, German-born British mathematician and expert (b. •, British biochemist (b. • 20 May –, American engineer, inventor of the wireless television (b. • 21 May –, (b.

• 27 May –, German mathematician (b. • 30 May – Sir, British physiologist and, winner of the 1963 (b. June [ ] • 7 June •, (b. •, American plant ecologist, credited with the discovery of (b.

• 13 June –, American chemist, winner of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b. July [ ] • 3 July –, Italian automotive engineer and (b.

• 8 July –, British engineer, lecturer and politician (b. • 21 July –, British geologist and (b. • 23 July –, American physicist and astronaut, first American woman in space (b.

• 26 July –, Australian and first (b. August [ ] • 2 August – Sir, British biologist (b. • 3 August –, British chemist and theorist (b.

• 6 August – Sir, British physicist and (b. • 14 August –, Russian physicist and TV host (b. • 21 August –, American mathematician, winner of the 1982 (b. • 25 August –, American astronaut, (b. September [ ] • 6 September –, American chemist, inventor of the anti- drug (b. • 8 September –, British industrial designer who created the original shape (b. • 9 September –, Australian expert, conservationist and filmmaker (b.

• 25 September – Dame, British biochemist (b. • 29 September –, Scottish geographer (b.

October [ ] • 5 October –, British biologist who was involved in creating (b. ) • 15 October –, -born British researcher (b. • 17 October –, American physicist and inventor who designed the battery now used in (b. • 20 October •, American physician, joint winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. •, American skeptic, philosopher and (b. • 29 October –, Anglo-American astronomer (b. November [ ] • 11 November –, American (b.

• 12 November –, American (b. • 14 November –, Australian chemist (b. • 26 November –, American surgeon and pioneer, joint winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. December [ ] • 9 December • Sir, English astronomer (b.

•, English mechanical engineer and inventor (b. •, American engineer, inventor of the (b.

• 17 December –, British (b. • 24 December –, New Zealand biochemist (b. • 27 December –, Scottish astronomer (b. • 30 December •, Italian and Senator for life, joint winner of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. •, American (b. See also [ ] • • • • References [ ].

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• Hampson, Robert E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Marmarelis, Vasilis; Song, Dong; Opris, Ioan; Santos, Lucas; Berger, Theodore W; Deadwyler, Sam A (1 October 2012).. Journal of Neural Engineering. 9 (5): 056012..... 3 January 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.

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Archived from on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.

External links [ ] •. 29 December 2012. 19 December 2012. 19 December 2012.