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Encyclopedia Of Hydrocarbons Eni Pdf Free

Encyclopedia Of Hydrocarbons.pdf Free Download Here ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ENCYCLOPEDIA July 1, 1997. Kenan And Kel Full Series Janet more. Encyclopedia Of Hydrocarbons Eni Pdf Files. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This page summarizes projects that brought more than 20,000 barrels/day of new liquid fuel. With all due respect, Professor Boyd, your argument is not at all compelling. It seems that you are taking the 'thinking outside the box' (TOTB) metaphor much more.

Encyclopedia Of Hydrocarbons Eni Pdf Free

Bottom Part of an Oil Drilling Derrick in Brazoria County, Texas (Harry Walker Photograph, circa 1940) The earliest known oil wells were drilled in in 347 CE. These wells had depths of up to about 240 metres (790 ft) and were drilled using attached to poles. The oil was burned to evaporate and produce. By the 10th century, extensive pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. The ancient records of China and are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating.

Petroleum was known as Burning water in Japan in the 7th century. According to Kasem Ajram, petroleum was by the alchemist (Rhazes) in the 9th century, producing chemicals such as in the ( al-ambiq), [ ] and which was mainly used for. Also distilled crude oil in order to produce products for military purposes. Through, distillation became available in by the 12th century. Some sources claim that from the 9th century, were exploited in the area around modern,, to produce for the. These places were described by in the 13th century, who described the output of those oil wells as hundreds of shiploads.

When Marco Polo in 1264 visited Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, he saw oil being collected from seeps. He wrote that 'on the confines toward Geirgine there is a fountain from which oil springs in great abundance, in as much as a hundred shiploads might be taken from it at one time.' 1904 at Bibi-Eibat In 1846, Baku (settlement Bibi-Heybat) the first ever well was drilled with percussion tools to a depth of 21 meters for oil exploration. In 1848, the first modern oil well was drilled on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku, by Russian engineer F.N. Semyenov., a and pioneer built one of the world's first modern oil wells in 1854 in village who in 1856 built one of the world's first. In North America, the first commercial oil well entered operation in in 1858, while the first offshore oil well was drilled in 1896 at the on the California Coast.

The earliest oil wells in modern times were drilled percussively, by repeatedly raising and dropping a into the earth. In the 20th century, cable tools were largely replaced with, which could drill boreholes to much greater depths and in less time.

The record-depth used non-rotary mud motor drilling to achieve a depth of over 12,000 metres (39,000 ft). Until the 1970s, most oil wells were vertical, although and mechanical imperfections cause most wells to deviate at least slightly from true vertical. However, modern technologies allow for strongly deviated wells which can, given sufficient depth and with the proper tools, actually become horizontal. This is of great value as the rocks which contain hydrocarbons are usually horizontal or nearly horizontal; a horizontal wellbore placed in a production zone has more surface area in the production zone than a vertical well, resulting in a higher production rate.

The use of deviated and horizontal drilling has also made it possible to reach reservoirs several kilometers or miles away from the drilling location (extended reach drilling), allowing for the production of hydrocarbons located below locations that are either difficult to place a drilling rig on, environmentally sensitive, or populated. Life of a well [ ] Planning [ ] Before a well is drilled, a geologic target is identified by a geologist or geophysicist to meet the objectives of the well. • For a production well, the target is picked to optimize production from the well and manage reservoir drainage. • For an exploration or appraisal well, the target is chosen to confirm the existence of a viable hydrocarbon reservoir or to ascertain its extent. • For an injection well, the target is selected to locate the point of injection in a permeable zone, which may support disposing of water or gas and /or pushing hydrocarbons into nearby production wells. The target (the end point of the well) will be matched with a surface location (the starting point of the well), and a between the two will be designed.

When the well path is identified, a team of geoscientists and engineers will develop a set of presumed properties of the subsurface that will be drilled through to reach the target. These properties include, fracture gradient, wellbore stability,,,,, and clay content.

This set of assumptions is used by a well engineering team to perform the and for the well, and then detailed planning, where, for example, the drill bits are selected, a is designed, the is selected, and step-by-step procedures are written to provide instruction for executing the well in a safe and cost-efficient manner. Drilling [ ]. An annotated schematic of an oil well during a drilling phase The well is created by a hole 12 cm to 1 meter (5 in to 40 in) in diameter into the earth with a drilling rig that rotates a with a bit attached. After the hole is drilled, sections of steel pipe (), slightly smaller in diameter than the borehole, are placed in the hole. Cement may be placed between the outside of the casing and the borehole known as the annulus. The casing provides structural integrity to the newly drilled wellbore, in addition to isolating potentially dangerous high pressure zones from each other and from the surface. With these zones safely isolated and the formation protected by the casing, the well can be drilled deeper (into potentially more-unstable and violent formations) with a smaller bit, and also cased with a smaller size casing.

Modern wells often have two to five sets of subsequently smaller hole sizes drilled inside one another, each cemented with casing. To drill the well.

Well Casing • The drill bit, aided by the weight of thick walled pipes called 'drill collars' above it, cuts into the rock. There are different types of drill bit; some cause the rock to disintegrate by compressive failure, while others shear slices off the rock as the bit turns. 'mud', is pumped down the inside of the drill pipe and exits at the drill bit.

The principal components of drilling fluid are usually water and clay, but it also typically contains a complex mixture of fluids, solids and chemicals that must be carefully tailored to provide the correct physical and chemical characteristics required to safely drill the well. Particular functions of the drilling mud include cooling the bit, lifting rock cuttings to the surface, preventing destabilisation of the rock in the wellbore walls and overcoming the pressure of fluids inside the rock so that these fluids do not enter the wellbore.

Some oil wells are drilled with air or foam as the drilling fluid. In process, a common way to study the lithology when drilling oil wells • The generated rock ' are swept up by the drilling fluid as it circulates back to surface outside the drill pipe. The fluid then goes through ' which strain the cuttings from the good fluid which is returned to the pit. Watching for abnormalities in the returning cuttings and monitoring pit volume or rate of returning fluid are imperative to catch 'kicks' early. A 'kick' is when the formation pressure at the depth of the bit is more than the hydrostatic head of the mud above, which if not controlled temporarily by closing the and ultimately by increasing the density of the drilling fluid would allow formation fluids and mud to come up through the annulus uncontrollably. • The pipe or to which the bit is attached is gradually lengthened as the well gets deeper by screwing in additional 9 m (30 ft) sections or 'joints' of pipe under the or topdrive at the surface.

This process is called making a connection, or 'tripping'. Joints can be combined for more efficient tripping when pulling out of the hole by creating stands of multiple joints. A conventional triple, for example, would pull pipe out of the hole three joints at a time and stack them in the derrick. Many modern rigs, called 'super singles', trip pipe one at a time, laying it out on racks as they go. This process is all facilitated by a which contains all necessary equipment to circulate the drilling fluid, hoist and turn the pipe, control downhole, remove cuttings from the drilling fluid, and generate on-site power for these operations. Completion [ ]. Modern drilling rig in Argentina After drilling and casing the well, it must be 'completed'.

Completion is the process in which the well is enabled to produce or gas. In a cased-hole completion, small holes called are made in the portion of the which passed through the production zone, to provide a path for the oil to flow from the surrounding rock into the production tubing. In open hole completion, often 'sand screens' or a 'gravel pack' is installed in the last drilled, uncased reservoir section. These maintain structural integrity of the wellbore in the absence of casing, while still allowing flow from the reservoir into the wellbore. Screens also control the migration of formation sands into production tubulars and surface equipment, which can cause washouts and other problems, particularly from unconsolidated sand formations of offshore fields. After a flow path is made, acids and fracturing fluids may be pumped into the well to, clean, or otherwise prepare and stimulate the reservoir rock to optimally produce hydrocarbons into the wellbore.

Finally, the area above the reservoir section of the well is packed off inside the casing, and connected to the surface via a smaller diameter pipe called tubing. This arrangement provides a redundant barrier to leaks of hydrocarbons as well as allowing damaged sections to be replaced. Also, the smaller cross-sectional area of the tubing produces reservoir fluids at an increased velocity in order to minimize liquid fallback that would create additional back pressure, and shields the casing from corrosive well fluids. In many wells, the natural pressure of the subsurface reservoir is high enough for the oil or gas to flow to the surface. However, this is not always the case, especially in depleted fields where the pressures have been lowered by other producing wells, or in low permeability oil reservoirs. Installing a smaller diameter tubing may be enough to help the production, but artificial lift methods may also be needed. Common solutions include downhole pumps, gas lift, or surface.

Many new systems in the last ten years have been introduced for well completion. Multiple systems with frac ports or port collars in an all in one system have cut completion costs and improved production, especially in the case of horizontal wells. These new systems allow casings to run into the lateral zone with proper packer/frac port placement for optimal hydrocarbon recovery.

Production [ ]. Burning of natural gases at an oil drilling site, presumably at Pangkalan Brandan, East Coast of Sumatra - circa 1905 By Produced Fluid [ ] • Wells that produce oil • Wells that produce and, or • Wells that only produce natural gas. Natural gas is almost always a byproduct of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains come out of solution as they undergo pressure reduction from the to the surface, similar to uncapping a bottle of soda where the carbon dioxide. Unwanted natural gas can be a disposal problem at the well site.

If there is not a market for natural gas near the it is virtually valueless since it must be piped to the end user. Until recently, such unwanted gas was burned off at the wellsite, but due to environmental concerns this practice is becoming less common. [ ] Often, unwanted (or 'stranded' gas without a market) gas is pumped back into the reservoir with an 'injection' well for disposal or repressurizing the producing formation.

Another solution is to export the natural gas as a., (GTL) is a developing technology that converts stranded natural gas into synthetic gasoline, diesel or jet fuel through the process developed in World War II Germany. Such fuels can be transported through conventional pipelines and tankers to users. Proponents claim GTL fuels burn cleaner than comparable petroleum fuels. Most major international oil companies are in advanced development stages of GTL production, e.g. The 140,000 bbl/d (22,000 m 3/d) plant in Qatar, scheduled to come online in 2011. In locations such as the United States with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed to take the gas from the wellsite to the.

By Location [ ] Wells can be located: • On land, or • Offshore Offshore wells can further be subdivided into • Wells with subsea wellheads, where the top of the well is sitting on the ocean floor under water, and often connected to a pipeline on the ocean floor. • Wells with 'dry' wellheads, where the top of the well is above the water on a platform or jacket, which also often contains processing equipment for the produced fluid.

While the location of the well will be a large factor in the type of equipment used to drill it, there is actually little difference in the well itself. An offshore well targets a reservoir that happens to be underneath an ocean.

Due to logistics, drilling an offshore well is far more costly than an onshore well. By far the most common type is the onshore well. These wells dot the Southern and Central Great Plains, Southwestern United States, and are the most common wells in the Middle East. By Purpose [ ] Another way to classify oil wells is by their purpose in contributing to the development of a resource. They can be characterized as: • wildcat wells are drilled where little or no known geological information is available. The site may have been selected because of wells drilled some distance from the proposed location but on a terrain that appeared similar to the proposed site. • exploration wells are drilled purely for exploratory (information gathering) purposes in a new area, the site selection is usually based on seismic data, satellite surveys etc.

Details gathered in this well includes the presence of Hydrocarbon in the drilled location, the amount of fluid present and the depth at which oil or/and gas occurs. • appraisal wells are used to assess characteristics (such as flow rate, reserve quantity) of a proven hydrocarbon accumulation. The purpose of this well is to reduce uncertainty about the characteristics and properties of the hydrocarbon present in the field. • production wells are drilled primarily for producing oil or gas, once the producing structure and characteristics are determined. • development wells are wells drilled for the production of oil or gas already proven by appraisal drilling to be suitable for exploitation. • Abandoned well are wells permanently plugged in the drilling phase for technical reasons.

At a producing well site, active wells may be further categorised as: • oil producers producing predominantly liquid hydrocarbons, but mostly with some associated gas. • gas producers producing almost entirely gaseous hydrocarbons. • water injectors into the formation to maintain pressure, or simply to dispose of water produced with the hydrocarbons because even after treatment, it would be too oily and too saline to be considered clean for dumping overboard offshore, let alone into a fresh water resource in the case of onshore wells. Water injection into the producing zone frequently has an element of reservoir management; however, often produced water disposal is into shallower zones safely beneath any fresh water zones.

• aquifer producers intentionally producing water for re-injection to manage pressure. If possible this water will come from the itself. Using aquifer produced water rather than water from other sources is to preclude chemical incompatibility that might lead to reservoir-plugging precipitates. These wells will generally be needed only if produced water from the oil or gas producers is insufficient for reservoir management purposes.

• gas injectors injecting gas into the reservoir often as a means of disposal or sequestering for later production, but also to maintain reservoir pressure. Lahee classification • New Field Wildcat (NFW) – far from other producing fields and on a structure that has not previously produced.

• New Pool Wildcat (NPW) – new pools on already producing structure. • Deeper Pool Test (DPT) – on already producing structure and pool, but on a deeper pay zone. • Shallower Pool Test (SPT) – on already producing structure and pool, but on a shallower pay zone.

• Outpost (OUT) – usually two or more locations from nearest productive area. • Development Well (DEV) – can be on the extension of a pay zone, or between existing wells ( Infill).

Cost [ ] The cost of a well depends mainly on the daily rate of the drilling rig, the extra services required to drill the well, the duration of the well program (including downtime and weather time), and the remoteness of the location (logistic supply costs). The daily rates of offshore drilling rigs vary by their capability, and the market availability. Rig rates reported by industry web service show that the deepwater water floating drilling rigs are over twice that of the shallow water fleet, and rates for jackup fleet can vary by factor of 3 depending upon capability. With deepwater drilling rig rates in 2015 of around $520,000/day, and similar additional spread costs, a deep water well of duration of 100 days can cost around US$100 million. Braudel Capitalism And Material Life Pdf Creator on this page. With high performance jackup rig rates in 2015 of around $177,000, and similar service costs, a high pressure, high temperature well of duration 100 days can cost about US$30 million.

Onshore wells can be considerably cheaper, particularly if the field is at a shallow depth, where costs range from less than $1 million to $15 million for deep and difficult wells. [ ] The total cost of an oil well mentioned does not include the costs associated with the risk of explosion and leakage of oil. Those costs include the cost of protecting against such disasters, the cost of the cleanup effort, and the hard-to-calculate cost of damage to the company's image.

This article or section may have been from ( ), possibly in violation of. Please by editing this article to remove any non-free copyrighted content and attributing free content correctly, or flagging the content for deletion. Please be sure that the supposed source of the copyright violation is not itself a. (September 2014), Ph.D., is regarded as one of the leading scientists of the 21st century for his invaluable contributions in research. He is one of the most frequently cited scientists in North America. [ ] He is the founder, chairman and CEO of the, a, research and support organization dedicated to researching human, microbial, plant and environmental genomics, exploring social and ethical issues in genomics, and seeking alternative energy solutions through genomics.

Craig Venter Institute has two divisions: (TIGR), founded by Dr. Venter in 1992; and the Center for the Advancement of Genomics. Venter began his formal education after a tour of duty as a in, from 1967 to 1968. After earning both a bachelor's degree in and a Ph.D. In and from the, he was appointed professor at the and the. In 1984, he moved to the campus where he pioneered a revolutionary new strategy for rapid gene discovery. At TIGR, Venter and his team decoded the genome of the first free-living organism, the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, using his new whole genome.

TIGR has sequenced more than 50 genomes to date using Dr. Venter's techniques. Venter founded to sequence the human genome. The successful completion of this research culminated with the February 2001 publication of the human genome in the journal Science. He and his team at Celera also sequenced the fruit fly, mouse and rat genomes. Venter and his team at the Venter Institute continue to do genomics research and have published several important papers covering such areas as environmental genomics, synthetic genomics and the sequence and analysis of the dog genome. Venter is the author of more than 200 research articles and is the recipient of numerous honorary degrees, public honors, and scientific awards.

These include the 2001 Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize and the 2002. Venter is a member of numerous scientific organizations including the National Academy of Sciences, the, and the American Society for Microbiology. Venter was one of the first 38 people to be selected by ’s Foundation for Peace as part of the 'Hands that Shape Humanity' world exhibition. Nozik [ ] is a Senior at the U.S. (NREL) and Professor Adjoint in the Chemistry Department at the. He received his from in 1959 and his PhD in Physical Chemistry from in 1967.

Before joining NREL in 1978, then known as the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), he conducted research at the and. Nozik has been a Senior Editor of since 1993.

He is a fellow of the and the, and a member of the American Chemical Society,, the Materials Research Society, and the Society of Photo Optical Instrument Engineers. Glunz [ ] Professor Glunz is head of the Department of Silicon Solar Cells – Development and Characterization at in, Germany. Stefan Glunz received his degree in Physics at the Albert-Ludvigs-Universitat in Freiburg 1991 and in 1995 he received his PhD Thesis in silicon after researching at the Fraunhofer ISE.

His group concentrates on new technologies such as metallization and laser-chemical processing techniques in silicon solar cell production and research. Among other achievements, his group holds the internationally acknowledged world record for the conversion efficiency of multicrystalline silicon solar cells (20%). A crucial part of his work involves close cooperation with the industry to put new technologies into production. Stefan Glunz’s high-efficiency solar cell group consists technicians, engineers and academics. Glunz is the author or co-author of over 130 conferences and 40 journal publications on high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

He is also an editor for several high standard scientific journals such as the journal of Applied Physics, Progress in Photovoltaics, and Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, and is a member of scientific committees and the chairman of numerous international photovoltaic conferences. 2009 recipients [ ] The New Frontiers in Hydrocarbons award was assigned 'ex aequo' to Alan G. Marshall (USA) and Tony Settari (Canada). It is awarded for research into the exploration, advanced recovery, development, refinement, transportation and distribution of oil and natural gas. The Renewable and Non-Conventional Energy award was given to Martin Green. It is presented for advanced R&D results in renewable and non-conventional energy sources.

The Protection of the Environment award was awarded to. It is presented for outstanding research and innovation in areas concerning the environmental impact of human activities, specifically protection and restoration of the environment, with a special focus on research and innovative technologies to eliminate local pollutants and CO 2 to improve environmental conditions. The two Research Debut awards, given to young scholars to promote research in Italy, have been assigned to Alberto Cuoci and Loredana De Rogatis. They cover the same areas as the three international awards: research and technological innovation in hydrocarbons, renewable and non-conventional energy, and protection and restoration of the environment. Marshall [ ].

This article or section may have been from ( ), possibly in violation of. Please by editing this article to remove any non-free copyrighted content and attributing free content correctly, or flagging the content for deletion. Please be sure that the supposed source of the copyright violation is not itself a.

(September 2014) Professor Marshall has been directing the ICR Program since 1993 within the. The research centre, with its headquarters in Tallahassee at the, was built in 1994 with a National Science Foundation loan and is part of a consortium led by the university itself. The Laboratory hosts numerous visiting scientists from different fields and gives them access to the extremely powerful magnetic fields that are generated there.

It is the largest and highest-powered magnet laboratory in the world. With these high output magnets Alan G. Marshall, co-invented the technique known as the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR), a high resolution method for the accurate determination of mass. Thanks to the high resolution techniques created by the group to identify the molecular components of complex chemical compounds such as blood or oil, they have been able to obtain detailed pictures which enable scientists to understand and predict with accuracy the reactions and properties of these complex compounds. Marshall graduated in 1965 with a degree in Chemistry from and earned his PhD in Physic Chemistry in 1970.

He began his academic career at and, then moved to Florida State University in 1993. Alan Marshall has written 469 scientific publications, holds numerous patents as a result of his research, and received many recognitions from universities and important institutes such as the American Institute of Chemists and the American Chemical Society. He is a member of several scientific committees and has also been on the board of many specialized magazines.

Tony Settari [ ]. This article or section may have been from a source, possibly in violation of. Please by editing this article to remove any non-free copyrighted content and attributing free content correctly, or flagging the content for deletion. Please be sure that the supposed source of the copyright violation is not itself a. (September 2014) Knackstedt was awarded a BSc from Columbia University in Chemical Engineering (1985) and obtained a PhD in Chemical Engineering from Rice University in 1990. From 1990 been resident at the Department of Applied Mathematics at Australian National University (ANU); since 2005 he has been professor of applied mathematics at ANU and visiting professor at the School of Petroleum Engineering at (UNSW). With his research group he has led a significant “Digital Materials” research effort (>25 staff & students) which has pioneered the study of real-world materials in three-dimensions via a two-pronged approach: sophisticated structural measurements with state-of-the-art tomographic and microscopy methods coupled with sophisticated image analysis and numerical modeling tools.

This combined development allows for a new numerical laboratory approach to the study of complex disordered materials. Numerical measurements performed directly on images can in some cases be performed with similar accuracy and considerably reduced complexity and cost than corresponding laboratory measurements.

This development provides petroleum engineers and geoscientists with a new image-based core analysis technology which can enhance conventional core analysis techniques and allows analysis of unconsolidated cores, sidewall cores and drill cuttings which are not suitable for conventional laboratory measurement. The importance to the industry is illustrated by the membership of an ANU/UNSW research sponsorship by leading oil and gas industry companies including Shell, ExxonMobil, BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips and Total. He is CTO of Digital Core, a private company set up to offer this advanced technology to industry at large. Knackstedt was awarded the George C. Matson Award by the AAPG in 2009 and is a current (2009–2010) and past (2006–2008) Society Distinguished Speaker of the SPWLA. The groups work has been awarded Best Paper at the 2004 Annual Symposium of the SPWLA and Best Paper at the 2008 Society of Core Analysts meeting.

Ongoing research of the group includes further development and integration of experimental 3D imaging techniques and studies of the role of surface and colloid chemistry phenomena underlying oil recovery. This article or section may have been from ( ), possibly in violation of. Please by editing this article to remove any non-free copyrighted content and attributing free content correctly, or flagging the content for deletion. Please be sure that the supposed source of the copyright violation is not itself a. (September 2014) Gregory Stephanopoulos was born in Kalamata, Greece, in 1950.

At present, he is the W. Dow Professor of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology at the Department of Chemical Engineering, (MIT). After attending to National Technical University of Athens, where in 1973 he achieved his Diploma of Chemical Engineering, he continued his studies in the United States.

In 1975 he obtained his M.S. From the and, three years later, his PhD degree from the. His professional career started in 1978 as assistant professor at the Caltech, while in 1984 he became associate professor. Since 1985, Gregory Stephanopoulos has been a professor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: he was the Bayer Professor from 2000 to 2006, when he was appointed to the W. Dow Professorship.

From 1990 to 1997 he served as associate director of the Biotechnology Center at MIT. Since 1997, he also worked as lecturer on surgery and bioengineering for, while he spent the academic year 2006–2007 as visiting professor at the. The professional career of Professor Stephanopoulos is underscored by his prolific scientific production: he is the co-author of a book and the editor of five other titles, while he wrote or co-authored about 340 papers and 40 patents. During his tenure, he trained and supervised more than 120 graduate and Post-Doc students; he collaborated with many scientific journals as a member of their Editorial Boards, like Mathematical Biosciences (1984–1998), Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2000–2005).

He serves on the editorial boards of 12 scientific journals such as the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, the Journal of Biotechnology and Trends in Biotechnology. Since 2003, he has been the Editor-in-Chief of Metabolic Engineering and since 2010, co-Editor-in-Chief of Current Opinion in Biotechnology. The importance of his outstanding research was highlighted in 26 named Lectureships. In 1991, he was appointed Merck Lecturer, in 1996, Inaugural Bayer Lecturer from the University of California at Berkeley. In 2002, the University of Minnesota nominated Professor Stephanopoulos as the inaugural A.

Fredrickson Lecturer, while in 2003 the acclaimed him the Kelly Lecturer, the the Patten Distinguished Lecturer, and, in 2004, the Georgia Institute of Technology appointed him the Cary Lecturer. In 2005 he gave the Mccabe Lecture at and in 2008 the inaugural Founders Lectureship at UCLA. In 2010, he became the Pigford Distinguished Lecturer at the. During the years, Professor Stephanopoulos received many honors.

Among others, in 1973 he received the CHRISOVERGION Award from the Athens Polytechnic, in 1984 the Presidential Young Investigator Award, in 2001 the Marvin J. Johnson Award from the American Chemical Society. In 2007, he received the from the, in 2009 the Amgen Award in Biochemical Engineering and, in 2009, the Aristoteles Award for Excellence in Biosciences Research. In 2010 he received the George Washington Carver Award for Innovation in Industrial Biotechnology while, in the same year, the ACS tributed him the E.

Murphree Award. Gregory Stephanopoulos was elected member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2003, while in 2005 he was nominated Doctor technices honoris causa from the. In the same year, he became a fellow of the AAAS.

He has also received the following awards from the American Institute of Chemical engineers (AIChE): the FPBE Division Award (1997), the R.H. Wilhelm Award (2001) and the Founders award in 2007. Professor Stephanopoulos works in Cambridge, at the Department of Chemical Engineering, focusing on biotechnology and bioinformatics, on metabolic and biochemical engineering. He is the director of the Bioinformatics & Metabolic Engineering Laboratory at MIT. His group of 25 graduate students and post-docs conducts research on inverse metabolic engineering, flux determination, metabolomics, systems biology and metabolic engineering of E.

Coli for the production of fuels biochemicals. Jean-Marie Tarascon [ ]. This article or section may have been from ( ), possibly in violation of. Please by editing this article to remove any non-free copyrighted content and attributing free content correctly, or flagging the content for deletion. Please be sure that the supposed source of the copyright violation is not itself a. (September 2014) Simone Gamba was born in 1982. In 2004 he graduated cum laude in Chemical Engineering from, where, in 2006, he also concluded his graduate studies with a cum laude grade in Chemical Engineering.

In February 2010, Simone Gamba defended his PhD Thesis, entitled Kinetic Modeling and Thermodynamic Analysis of the Fischer-Tropsch Wax Hydrocracking Process. This Thesis, developed at the Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering 'Giulio Natta' of the Politecnico di Milano under the supervision of Professor Laura Pellegrini, received a summa cum laude grade; during his PhD studies, he spent several months at Rutgers University () with the research group of Professor Michael T.

Klein, focusing on the automated generation of complex reaction networks. He collaborated with Professor Laura Pellegrini and Engineer Giorgio Soave on the improvement of thermodynamic models for vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction and energy saving in chemical industries. At present, Simone Gamba holds a research grant at the Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering 'Giulio Natta' of the Politecnico di Milano for working on the Acidic gases: methods for purification and thermodynamic characterization Program. Since the academic year 2006–2007, he has also been assisting the tenure of courses in the field of the Unit Operations for Chemical Plants at the Third School of Engineering at the Politecnico di Milano. In the end, Simone Gamba acts as Co-Advisor for Master of Science Theses in Chemical Engineering. His research interests focus on kinetic modeling, in particular on the catalytic hydrocracking of hydrocarbons, on chemical plants and thermodynamics.

During his scientific career, Simone Gamba was recognized as Best Student in Chemical Engineering of the Politecnico di Milano in the academic year 2003–2004. First author and co-author of various papers, published on international scientific journals, he is a peer reviewer for Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research and for The Journal of Physical Chemistry. Simone Gamba, Research Grant at the 'Giulio Natta' Department of Chemistry of the Politecnico di Milano, developed during his PhD course a promising research, concerning the interpretation and modelling of the hydrocarbons hydrocracking process, obtained with the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This research underlines an interesting way to produce high quality fuels and lubricants, from synthetic gas. For these reasons the Scientific Commission conferred to Simone Gamba the 'Debut in Research Prize'. Fabrizio Frontalini [ ]. US Department of Energy.

Retrieved 11 July 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. • CGS Solar is a company that began as a joint venture between Pacific Power, a large local utility company, and New South Wales University, for the commercialization of Prof. Green’s research group on Thin Layer Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Retrieved 2014-08-20.

Retrieved 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2014-08-20.

• (en), Petrolio, various • (it), Enrico Mattei, Bologna, Il mulino, 2001 • External links [ ] •.