May 21, 2017. Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences)Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar (1. Contemporary critical realism. The two terms were combined by other authors to form the umbrella term critical realism. Transcendental realism attempts to establish that in order for.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Signature Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; German:; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German and possibly the most important representative of. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the tradition as well. Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within is universally recognized. Hegel's principal achievement is his development of a distinctive articulation of sometimes termed ', in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and and are overcome. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. His account of the has been highly influential, especially in 20th-century France. Of special importance is his concept of spirit (: sometimes also translated as 'mind') as the historical manifestation of the logical concept and the ( Aufhebung: integration without ) of seemingly contradictory or opposing factors; examples include the apparent opposition between nature and and between and.
Hegel has been seen in the 20th century as the originator of the triad; however, as an explicit phrase, it originated with. Free Download Mp3 Lagu Takicuah Di Nan Tarang. Hegel has influenced many thinkers and writers whose own positions vary widely. Described Hegel as a 'Protestant Aquinas', while wrote that 'all the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel.' Napoleon, the 'world spirit on horseback', in Jena His finances drying up quickly, Hegel was now under great pressure to deliver his book, the long-promised introduction to his System. Hegel was putting the finishing touches to this book, the Phenomenology of Spirit, as Napoleon engaged Prussian troops on October 14, 1806, in the on a plateau outside the city.
On the day before the battle, Napoleon entered the city of Jena. Hegel recounted his impressions in a letter to his friend: I saw the Emperor – this world-spirit – riding out of the city on reconnaissance. It is indeed a wonderful sensation to see such an individual, who, concentrated here at a single point, astride a horse, reaches out over the world and masters it. This extraordinary man, whom it is impossible not to admire.: 228 Although Napoleon chose not to close down Jena as he had other universities, the city was devastated and students deserted the university in droves, making Hegel's financial prospects even worse. The following February Hegel's landlady Christiana Burkhardt (who had been abandoned by her husband) gave birth to their son Georg Ludwig Friedrich Fischer (1807–31).: 192 In March 1807, aged 37, Hegel moved to, where Niethammer had declined and passed on to Hegel an offer to become editor of a newspaper, the ().
Hegel, unable to find more suitable employment, reluctantly accepted. Ludwig Fischer and his mother (whom Hegel may have offered to marry following the death of her husband) stayed behind in Jena.: 238 He was then, in November 1808, again through Niethammer, appointed headmaster of a Gymnasium in, a post he held until 1816. While in Nuremberg Hegel adapted his recently published Phenomenology of Spirit for use in the classroom. Part of his remit being to teach a class called 'Introduction to Knowledge of the Universal Coherence of the Sciences', Hegel developed the idea of an encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences, falling into three parts (logic, philosophy of nature, and philosophy of spirit).: 337 Hegel married Marie Helena Susanna von Tucher (1791–1855), the eldest daughter of a Senator, in 1811. This period saw the publication of his second major work, the Science of Logic ( Wissenschaft der Logik; 3 vols., 1812, 1813, 1816), and the birth of his two legitimate sons, (1813–1901) and Immanuel Thomas Christian (1814–1891). Heidelberg and Berlin (1816–1831) [ ] Having received offers of a post from the Universities of,, and, Hegel chose Heidelberg, where he moved in 1816. Soon after, in April 1817, his illegitimate son Ludwig Fischer (now ten years old) joined the Hegel household, having thus far spent his childhood in an orphanage.: 354–55 (Ludwig's mother had died in the meantime.): 356 Hegel published The Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Outline (1817) as a summary of his philosophy for students attending his lectures at Heidelberg.
Hegel with his Berlin students Sketch by Franz Kugler In 1818, Hegel accepted the renewed offer of the chair of philosophy at the, which had remained vacant since 's death in 1814. Here he published his Philosophy of Right (1821). Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering his lectures; his lecture courses on aesthetics, the philosophy of religion, the philosophy of history, and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from lecture notes taken by his students. His fame spread and his lectures attracted students from all over Germany and beyond. In 1819–27, he made several trips to (twice), where he met Goethe,, the,, through, and. Hegel was appointed of the University in October 1829, when he was 59. His term as Rector ended in September 1830; he was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year.
In 1831, decorated him with the, 3rd Class for his service to the Prussian state. In August 1831 a epidemic reached Berlin and Hegel left the city, taking up lodgings in.
Now in a weak state of health, Hegel seldom went out. As the new semester began in October, Hegel returned to Berlin, with the (mistaken) impression that the epidemic had largely subsided. By November 14, Hegel was dead. The physicians pronounced the cause of death as cholera, but it is likely he died from a different gastrointestinal disease. He is said to have uttered the last words 'And he didn't understand me' before expiring. In accordance with his wishes, Hegel was buried on November 16 in the next to Fichte and.
Hegel's son Ludwig Fischer had died shortly before while serving with the Dutch army in; the news of his death never reached his father.: 548 Early the following year Hegel's sister Christiane committed suicide by drowning. Hegel's remaining two sons —, who became a historian, and (), who followed a theological path — lived long and safeguarded their father's and produced editions of his works. See also: There are views of Hegel's thought as a representation of the summit of early 19th-century Germany's movement of philosophical. It would come to have a profound impact on many future philosophical schools, including schools that opposed Hegel's specific, such as, the of Marx,, and. Hegel's influence was immense both within philosophy and in the other sciences. Throughout the 19th century many chairs of philosophy around Europe were held by Hegelians, and,, Marx, and —among many others—were all deeply influenced by, but also strongly opposed to, many of the central themes of Hegel's philosophy.
Scholars continue to find and point out Hegelian influences and approaches in a wide range of theoretical and/or learned works, such as 's magnum opus on strategic thought, (1831). After less than a generation, Hegel's philosophy was suppressed and even banned by the, and was firmly rejected by the in multiple official writings. After the period of, Hegel's influence did not make itself felt again until the philosophy of British Idealism and the 20th century Hegelian that began with. The more recent movement of has a strong Hegelian influence. Reading Hegel [ ] Some of Hegel's writing was intended for those with advanced knowledge of philosophy, although his Encyclopedia was intended as a textbook in a. Ford Program.
Nevertheless, Hegel assumes that his readers are well-versed in. Especially crucial are,, and Kant's immediate successors, most prominently, and. Those without this background would be well-advised to begin with one of the many general introductions to his thought. As is always the case, difficulties are magnified for those reading him in translation. In fact, Hegel himself argues in his Science of Logic that the German language was particularly conducive to philosophical thought.
One especially difficult aspect of Hegel's work is his innovation in logic. In response to Immanuel Kant's challenge to the limits of, Hegel develops a radically new form of logic, which he called speculative. The difficulty in reading Hegel was perceived in Hegel's own day, and persists into the 21st century. To understand Hegel fully requires paying attention to his critique of standard logic, such as the and the. Many philosophers who came after Hegel and were influenced by him, whether adopting or rejecting his ideas, did so without fully absorbing his new speculative or dialectical logic. [ ] According to Walter Kaufmann, the basic idea of Hegel's works, especially the Phenomenology of Spirit, is that a philosopher should not 'confine him or herself to views that have been held but penetrate these to the human reality they reflect.' In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; 'it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness.
Every outlook in other words, is to be studied not merely as an academic possibility but as an existential reality.' Walter Kaufmann has argued that as unlikely as it may sound, it is not the case that Hegel was unable to write clearly, but that Hegel felt that 'he must and should not write in the way in which he was gifted.' Left and Right Hegelianism [ ] Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. The, the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the, advocated a orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post- Restoration period. The, also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of in religion and in politics. In more recent studies, however, this paradigm has been questioned. No Hegelians of the period ever referred to themselves as 'Right Hegelians', which was a term of insult originated by, a self-styled Left Hegelian.
Critiques of Hegel offered from the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a disproportionately large part of the literature on and about Hegel. [ ] The Left Hegelians also influenced, which inspired global movements, encompassing the, the, and myriad revolutionary practices up until the present moment.
[ ] Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by,,, and. The Italian Fascist, according to, 'holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy.' However, since the fall of the, a new wave of Hegel scholarship arose in the West, without the preconceptions of the prior schools of thought. () and in Germany, as well as Peter Hodgson and in America are notable for their recent contributions to post-USSR thinking about Hegel.
Main article: Published during Hegel's lifetime [ ] • Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie, 1801, tr. Harris and Walter Cerf, 1977 •, 1807 Phenomenology of Mind, tr., 1910; 2nd ed. 1931 Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, tr. Miller, 1977 •, 1812, 1813, 1816, 'Doctrine of Being' revised 1831 Science of Logic, tr.
Johnston and L. Struthers, 2 vols., 1929; tr. Miller, 1969; tr. George di Giovanni, 2010 •, 1817; 2nd ed.
1827; 3rd ed. 1830 ( Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences) (Pt. I:) The Logic of Hegel, tr., 1874, 2nd ed. Suchting and H. Harris, 1991; tr.
Klaus Brinkmann and Daniel O. Dahlstrom 2010 (Pt. II:) Hegel's Philosophy of Nature, tr.
Miller, 1970 (Pt. III:) Hegel's Philosophy of Mind, tr. William Wallace, 1894; rev. Miller, 1971; rev. 2007 by Michael Inwood •, 1821 Elements of the Philosophy of Right, tr. Knox, 1942; tr. Wood, 1991 Published posthumously [ ] • • (also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History), 1837 • • See also [ ].
• • • What is the difference between Positivism and Interpretivism? 8 months ago • • • • • 765 views • Positivism and Interpretivism are both different sociological methodologies, mostly discussed with reference to research methods.
When studying society, Positivists like to collect quantitative, objective data using surveys, structured interviews and official statistics. Positivists prefer using these methods because the data produced is quantifiable, it uncovers patterns of behaviour which can be analysed for patterns and trends. Interpretivists on the other hand, value qualitative data, which they prefer to collect through unstructured interviews, participant observation and documents. Interpretivists want to uncover the meanings held by individuals and social groups because they believe that each individual/group defines 'reality' differently. To understand these different definitions, interpretivist research therefore involves going to the groups and allowing them to act or speak openly.
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