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Braudel Capitalism And Material Life Pdf Creator

Braudel Capitalism And Material Life Pdf Creator

• • • The had a considerable part in the making of. The and have made numerous seminal contributions to the world's civilization, especially in art, science, technology and engineering, economics and finance, cartography and geography, exploration and navigation, law and jurisprudence, thought and philosophy, medicine, and agriculture., in spite of their relatively small, have a significant history of,, and. The following list is composed of objects, (largely) unknown lands, breakthrough ideas/concepts, principles, phenomena, processes, methods, techniques, styles etc., that were discovered or invented (or pioneered) by people from the and Dutch-speaking people from the former ( Zuid-Nederlanders in ). Until the (1585), the and were generally seen as one people. A with the top half open, in The (also known as stable door or half door) is a type of door divided horizontally in such a fashion that the bottom half may remain shut while the top half opens.

The initial purpose of this door was to keep animals out of farmhouses, while keeping children inside, yet allowing light and air to filter through the open top. This type of door was common in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century and appears in Dutch paintings of the period. They were commonly found in Dutch areas of New York and New Jersey (before the ) and in South Africa. Red and Blue Chair (1917) [ ].

Signature of Jan van Eyck. Is often credited as the first master of. Although oil paint was first used for paintings by Indian and Chinese painters sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain notoriety until the 15th century. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Eventually became the principal used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known.

Fernand Braudel was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: The Mediterranean (1923–49, then 1949–66), Civilization and Capitalism (1955–79), and the unfinished Identity of France (1970–85). His reputation stems in part from his writings, but even more. This argument was taken up in the mid-twentieth century by the prominent writer. Braudel, Fernand. Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism. Translated by Patricia. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1977. Accessed Oct.

The transition began with in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance techniques had almost completely replaced paints in the majority of Europe. ( in particular) in the 15th century was the first to make oil the default painting medium, and to explore the use of layers and, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, and only then Italy. Glaze (painting technique) (15th century) [ ] is a technique employed by painters since the invention of modern. In the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, and explore the use of layers and, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, and only then Italy. Proto-Realism (15th–17th centuries) [ ] Two aspects of were rooted in at least two centuries of Dutch tradition: conspicuous textural imitation and a penchant for ordinary and exaggeratedly comic scenes. Two hundred years before the rise of literary realism, Dutch painters had already made an art of the everyday – pictures that served as a compelling model for the later novelists. By the mid-1800s, figured virtually everywhere in the British and French fiction we esteem today as the vanguard of.

Proto-Surrealism (1470s–1510s) [ ] is considered one of the prime examples of. The surrealists relied most on his insights. In the 20th century, (e.g.,, and ) were cited by the as precursors to their own visions. Modern still-life painting (16th–17th century) [ ] as an independent genre or specialty first flourished in the Netherlands in the last quarter of the 16th century, and the English term derives from stilleven: still life, which is a, while Romance languages (as well as Greek, Polish, Russian and Turkish) tend to use terms meaning dead nature.

Naturalistic landscape painting (16th–17th century) [ ]. The Windmill at Wijk by (1670). It is a commonplace of art history that the genre of ' first emerged in Holland in the seventeenth century. The word ' entered the modern English language as landskip (variously spelt), an anglicization of the Dutch landschap, around the start of the 17th century. The had considerable influences on the, American, and French in subsequent centuries. The term ' derives from the Dutch word landschap, which originally meant 'region, tract of land' but acquired the artistic connotation, 'a picture depicting scenery on land' in the early 16th century. After the fall of the, the tradition of depicting pure landscapes declined and the landscape was seen only as a setting for religious and figural scenes.

Braudel Capitalism And Material Life Pdf Creator

This tradition continued until the 16th century when artists began to view the landscape as a subject in its own right. The of the 17th century saw the dramatic growth of, in which many artists specialized, and the development of extremely subtle realist techniques for depicting light and weather. Genre painting (15th century) [ ] The Flemish Renaissance painter chose peasants and their activities as the subject of many paintings. Genre painting flourished in Northern Europe in his wake.,,,, and were among many painters specializing in genre subjects in the Netherlands during the 17th century. The generally small scale of these artists' paintings was appropriate for their display in the homes of middle class purchasers. Marine painting (17th century) [ ].

The genre of as a distinct category separate from is attributed to from early in the seventeenth century. Marine painting began in keeping with medieval tradition. Such works portrayed the sea only from a bird's eye view, and everything, even the waves, was organized and symmetrical. The viewpoint, symmetry and overall order of these early paintings underlined the organization of the heavenly cosmos from which the earth was viewed. Later Dutch artists such as, Cornelius Claesz,,,,, and developed new methods for painting, often from a horizontal point of view, with a lower horizon and more focus on realism than symmetry. Vanitas (17th century) [ ] The term is most often associated with still life paintings that were popular in seventeenth-century Dutch art, produced by the artists such as.

Common vanitas symbols included skulls (a reminder of the certainty of death); rotten fruit (decay); bubbles, (brevity of life and suddenness of death); smoke, watches, and hourglasses, (the brevity of life); and musical instruments (the brevity and ephemeral nature of life). Fruit, flowers and butterflies can be interpreted in the same way, while a peeled lemon, as well as the typical accompanying seafood was, like life, visually attractive but with a bitter flavor. Civil group portraiture (17th century) [ ] Group portraits were produced in great numbers during the, particularly in the Netherlands.

Unlike in the rest of Europe, Dutch artists received no commissions from the which had forbidden such images or from the aristocracy which was virtually non-existent. Instead, commissions came from civic and businesses associations. Dutch painter used fluid brush strokes of vivid color to enliven his group, including those of the civil guard to which he belonged. Benefitted greatly from such commissions and from the general appreciation of art by bourgeois clients, who supported as well as still-life and landscape painting.

Notably, the world's first significant art and dealer markets flourished in Holland at that time. Tronie (17th century) [ ]. (1665), 's masterpiece is often considered as a “”. In the 17th century, Dutch painters (especially,, and ) began to create uncommissioned paintings called tronies that focused on the features and/or expressions of people who were not intended to be identifiable. They were conceived more for art's sake than to satisfy conventions. The tronie was a distinctive type of, combining elements of the, history, and.

This was usually a half-length of a single figure which concentrated on capturing an unusual mood or expression. The actual identity of the model was not supposed to be important, but they might represent a historical figure and be in exotic or historic costume. In contrast to, ' were painted for the.

They differ from figurative paintings and religious figures in that they are not restricted to a moral or narrative context. It is, rather, much more an exploration of the spectrum of human physiognomy and expression and the reflection of conceptions of character that are intrinsic to psychology’s pre-history. Rembrandt lighting (17th century) [ ]. The typical Rembrandt lighting setup. Rembrandt's treatment of light and dark in his created a style of lighting known today as. Rembrandt lighting technique is used by many modern and.

Rembrandt lighting is a technique that is used in studio. It can be achieved using one light and a reflector, or two lights, and is popular because it is capable of producing images which appear both natural and compelling with a minimum of equipment. Rembrandt lighting is characterized by an illuminated triangle under the eye of the subject, on the less illuminated side of the face. It is named for the Dutch painter, who often used this type of lighting in his. Mezzotint (1642) [ ] The first known was done in in 1642 by -born German artist.

He lived in Amsterdam from 1641 to about 1644, when he was supposedly influenced. Aquatint (1650s) [ ] The painter and printmaker is often credited to be the inventor of the technique, in Amsterdam around 1650. Pronkstilleven (1650s) [ ] ( pronk still life or ostentatious still life) is a type of banquet piece whose distinguishing feature is a quality of ostentation and splendor. These still lifes usually depict one or more especially precious objects. Although the term is a post-17th century invention, this type is characteristic of the second half of the seventeenth century. It was developed in the 1640s in from where it spread quickly to the.

Flemish artists such as and started to paint still lifes that emphasized abundance by depicting a diversity of objects, fruits, flowers and dead game, often together with living people and animals. The style was soon adopted by artists from the Dutch Republic. A leading Dutch representative was, who spent a long period of his active career in Antwerp and was one of the founders of the style in Holland. Other leading representatives in the Dutch Republic were, and. Proto-Expressionism (1880s) [ ] 's work is most often associated with, but his innovative style had a vast influence on 20th-century art and established what would later be known as, also greatly influencing and early.

His impact on German and Austrian was especially profound. 'Van Gogh was father to us all,' the German Expressionist painter proclaimed in 1901, when Van Gogh's vibrant oils were first shown in Germany and triggered the artistic reformation, a decade after his suicide in obscurity in France. In his final letter to, Van Gogh stated that, as he had no children, he viewed his paintings as his progeny. Reflecting on this, the British art historian concluded that he 'did have a child of course, Expressionism, and many, many heirs.' Escher's graphic arts (1920s–1960s) [ ] Dutch, usually referred to as M. Escher, is known for his often mathematically inspired,, and. These feature, explorations of, architecture and.

His special way of thinking and rich graphic work has had a continuous influence in science and art, as well as permeating popular culture. His ideas have been used in fields as diverse as,, logic, and. His art is based on mathematical principles like tessellations,, the, unusual perspectives, visual and illusions, different kinds of symmetries and impossible objects.

By discusses the ideas of self-reference and, drawing on a wide range of artistic and scientific work, including Escher's art and the music of, to illustrate ideas behind. Miffy (Nijntje) (1955) [ ] () is a small female rabbit in a series of picture books drawn and written by Dutch artist.

Music [ ] Franco-Flemish School (Netherlandish School) (15th–16th century) [ ] In music, the or more precisely the refers to the style of polyphonic vocal music composition in the in the 15th and early 16th centuries, and to the composers who wrote it. Venetian School (Venetian polychoral style) (16th century) [ ] The of was founded by the Netherlandish composer. Hardcore (electronic dance music genre) (1990s) [ ] or is a subgenre of originating in Europe from the emergent in the 1990s. It was initially designed at in, derived from. Hardstyle (electronic dance music genre) (1990s–2000s) [ ] is an genre mixing influences from and. Hardstyle was influenced.

Hardstyle has its origins in the Netherlands where artists like,, DJ Isaac, DJ Pavo, DJ Luna and, who produced hardcore, started experimenting while playing their hardcore records. Agriculture [ ] Holstein Friesian cattle (2nd century BC) [ ]. A typical cow., a that now dominates the global, are most quickly recognized by their distinctive color markings and outstanding milk production. Or are a of known today as the world's highest-production animals. Originating in Europe, Holstein-Friesians were bred in the two northern provinces of and, and in what became Germany. The animals were the regional cattle of the and the. The origins of the can be traced to the black and white cows of the and – who settled the coastal Rhine region more than two thousand years ago.

Brussels sprout ( 13th century) [ ] Forerunners to modern were likely cultivated in ancient. As we now know them were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in the (may have originated in ). The first written reference dates to 1587. During the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of. Orange-coloured carrot (16th century) [ ].

Carrots can be to produce different colours. Through history, weren’t always. They were,, white,, red and yellow. Probably orange too, but this was not the dominant colour. Carrots appeared in the in the 16th century. Dutch farmers in bred the color. They succeeded by cross-breeding pale with carrots.

It is more likely that Dutch horticulturists actually found an orange rooted variety and then worked on its development through to make the plant consistent. Through successive hybridisation the orange colour intensified.

This was developed to become the dominant species across the world, a sweet orange. Belle de Boskoop (apple) (1856) [ ] is an which, as its name suggests, originated in, where it began as a chance seedling in 1856.

There are many variants: Boskoop red, yellow or green. This rustic apple is firm, tart and fragrant. Greenish-gray tinged with red, the apple stands up well to cooking. Generally Boskoop varieties are very high in acid content and can contain more than four times the vitamin C of ' or '. Karmijn de Sonnaville (apple) (1949) [ ] is a variety of bred by Piet de Sonnaville, working in in 1949.

It is a cross of and, and was first grown commercially beginning in 1971. It is high both in sugars (including some sucrose) and acidity. It is a, and hence needs good pollination, and can be difficult to grow. It also suffers from fruit, which can be severe. In Manhart’s book, “apples for the 21st century”, Karmijn de Sonnaville is tipped as a possible success for the future. Karmijn de Sonnaville is not widely grown in large quantities, but in Ireland, at The Apple Farm, 8 acres (32,000 m 2) it is grown for fresh sale and juice-making, for which the variety is well suited. Elstar (apple) (1950s) [ ] is an that was first developed in the Netherlands in the 1950s by crossing and apples.

It quickly became popular, especially in and was first introduced to America in 1972. It remains popular in Continental Europe. The Elstar is a medium-sized apple whose skin is mostly red with yellow showing. The flesh is white, and has a soft, crispy texture. It may be used for cooking and is especially good for making. In general, however, it is used in desserts due to its sweet flavour.

Groasis Waterboxx (2010) [ ] The Groasis Waterboxx is a device designed to help grow trees in dry areas. It was developed by former flower exporter, and won 's 'Green Tech Best of What's New' Innovation of the year award for 2010. Cartography and geography [ ] Method for determining longitude using a clock (1530) [ ] The Dutch-Frisian geographer was the first to propose the use of a to determine in 1530. In his book On the Principles of Astronomy and Cosmography (1530), Frisius explains for the first time how to use a very accurate to determine. The problem was that in Frisius’ day, no was sufficiently precise to use his method. In 1761, the British clock-builder constructed the first, which allowed the method developed by Frisius. Triangulation and the modern systematic use of triangulation networks (1533 & 1615)' [ ] had first emerged as a method in the mid sixteenth century when the Dutch-Frisian mathematician set out the idea in his Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione ( Booklet concerning a way of describing places).

Dutch cartographer was among the first to make systematic use of, the technique whose theory was described by Gemma Frisius in his 1533 book. The modern systematic use of stems from the work of the Dutch mathematician (born Willebrord Snel van Royen), who in 1615 surveyed the distance from to, approximately 70 miles (110 kilometres), using a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all – a feat celebrated in the title of his book Eratosthenes Batavus ( The Dutch ), published in 1617. Mercator projection (1569) [ ].

World map by Ortelius (1570). The period of late 16th and much of the 17th century (approximately 1570–1672) has been called the '. The cartographers/publishers of and, especially, were leaders in supplying maps and charts for all of Western Europe. Flemish geographer and cartographer generally recognized as the creator of the world's first modern, the ( Theatre of the World). Ortelius's is considered the first true in the modern sense: a collection of uniform map sheets and sustaining text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved. It is sometimes referred to as the summary of sixteenth-century.

First printed atlas of nautical charts (1584) [ ]. Portugal by (1584). The publication of Waghenaer's De Spieghel der Zeevaerdt (1584) is widely considered as one of the most important developments in the history of nautical cartography. The first printed of ( De Spieghel der Zeevaerdt or The Mirror of Navigation / The Mariner's Mirror) was produced by in. This atlas was the first attempt to systematically codify nautical maps.

This chart-book combined an atlas of nautical charts and sailing directions with instructions for navigation on the western and north-western coastal waters of Europe. It was the first of its kind in the history of maritime cartography, and was an immediate success. The English translation of Waghenaer's work was published in 1588 and became so popular that any volume of sea charts soon became known as a 'waggoner', the Anglicized form of Waghenaer's surname. Concept of atlas (1595) [ ].

The Dutch were the first to systematically observe and () the largely unknown far southern skies in the late 16th century. Among the 's, there are 15 Dutch-created, including 12. The 's explorers and cartographers like,, and were the pioneers in first systematic /mapping of largely unknown skies in the late 16th century. The constellations around the were not observable from north of the, by Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese. The modern constellations in this region were defined during the, notably by Dutch navigators and at the end of sixteenth century.

These twelve Dutch-created represented and of the and. They were depicted by in his of 1603. Several more were created by in his star catalogue, published in 1756. By the end of the, introduced 23 asterisms of the southern sky based on the knowledge of western star charts. These asterisms have since been incorporated into the traditional Chinese star maps. Among the 's, there are 15 Dutch-created (including,,,,,,,,,,,,, and ).

Continental drift hypothesis (1596) [ ] The speculation that might have 'drifted' was first put forward by in 1596. The concept was independently and more fully developed by in 1912. Because Wegener's publications were widely available in German and English and because he adduced geological support for the idea, he is credited by most geologists as the first to recognize the possibility of.

During the 1960s geophysical and geological evidence for seafloor spreading at mid-oceanic ridges established continental drift as the standard theory or continental origin and an ongoing global mechanism. Chemicals and materials [ ] Bow dye (1630) [ ] While making a coloured liquid for a, dropped a flask of on a window sill, and discovered that makes the color of much brighter and more durable. Though Drebbel himself never made much from his work, his daughters Anna and Catharina and his sons-in-law Abraham and set up a successful works.

One was set up in 1643 in, and the resulting color was called. Dyneema (1979) [ ] Dutch chemical company invented and patented the in 1979. Dyneema fibres have been in commercial production since 1990 at their plant. These are manufactured by means of a gel-spinning process that combines extreme strength with incredible softness. Dyneema fibres, based on (), is used in many applications in markets such as life protection, shipping, fishing, offshore, sailing, medical and textiles. Communication and multimedia [ ] Compact cassette (1962) [ ].

Compact Cassette In 1962 invented the medium for, introducing it in Europe in August 1963 (at the ) and in the United States (under the brand) in November 1964, with the trademark name Compact Cassette. Laserdisc (1969) [ ], using a transparent disc, was invented by in 1958 (and patented in 1961 and 1990). By 1969, developed a videodisc in reflective mode, which has great advantages over the transparent mode. And Philips decided to join forces. They first publicly demonstrated the videodisc in 1972. Laserdisc entered the market in Atlanta, on 15 December 1978, two years after the and four years before the, which is based on Laserdisc technology.

Philips produced the players and MCA made the discs. Compact disc (1979) [ ]. Compact Disc The compact disc was jointly developed by (Joop Sinjou) and (). In the early 1970s, Philips' researchers started experiments with 'audio-only' optical discs, and at the end of the 1970s,,, and other companies presented prototypes of digital audio discs. Bluetooth (1990s) [ ], a low-energy, technology was originally developed by Dutch electrical engineer and Swedish engineer Sven Mattisson in the 1990s, working at in, Sweden. It became a global standard of short distance.

Wi-fi (1990s) [ ] In 1991, / invented the precursor to in. Dutch electrical engineer chaired committee for 10 years, which was set up in 1990 to establish a wireless networking standard. He has been called the father of (the brand name for products using standards) for his work on IEEE 802.11 (802.11a & 802.11b) standard in 1997. DVD (1995) [ ] The storage format was invented and developed by and in 1995. Ambilight (2002) [ ], short for 'ambient lighting', is a lighting system for televisions developed by in 2002. Blu-ray (2006) [ ] and in 1997 and 2006 respectively, launched the video recording/playback standard. Computer science and information technology [ ] Dijkstra's algorithm (1956) [ ], conceived by Dutch computer scientist in 1956 and published in 1959, is a that solves the single-source for a graph with non-negative edge path costs, producing a.

Dijkstra's algorithm is so powerful that it not only finds the shortest path from a chosen source to a given destination, it finds all of the shortest paths from the source to all destinations. This algorithm is often used in and as a in other. Dijkstra's algorithm is considered as one of the most popular in.

It is also widely used in the fields of, /,,, and. Foundations of distributed computing (1960s) [ ] Through his fundamental contributions helped shape the field of. His groundbreaking contributions ranged from the engineering side of computer science to the and covered several areas including,,, sequential and,, and. Many of his papers, often just a few pages long, are the source of whole new research areas. Several concepts that are now completely standard in computer science were first identified by Dijkstra and/or bear names coined by him.

Edsger Dijkstra's foundational work on,,, deadlock, finding shortest paths in graphs,,, among many other contributions comprises many of the pillars upon which the field of is built. The (sponsored jointly by the and the ) is given for outstanding papers on the principles of distributed computing, whose significance and impact on the theory and/or practice of distributed computing has been evident for at least a decade. Foundations of concurrent programming (1960s) [ ] The academic study of ( in particular) started in the 1960s, with (1965) credited with being the first paper in this field, identifying and solving. A pioneer in the field of, considers Dijkstra's Cooperating Sequential Processes (1965) to be the first classic paper in. As Brinch Hansen notes: ‘Here Dijkstra lays the conceptual foundation for abstract concurrent programming.’ Foundations of software engineering (1960s) [ ] in the 1950s to 1960s was not recognized as an academic discipline and unlike physics there were no theoretical concepts or coding systems.

Dijkstra was one of the moving forces behind the acceptance of computer programming as a scientific discipline. In 1968, computer programming was in a. Dijkstra was one of a small group of academics and industrial programmers who advocated a new to improve the quality of programs. Dijkstra coined the phrase ' and during the 1970s this became the new programming orthodoxy.

As remarked: 'The revolution in views of programming started by Dijkstra's iconoclasm led to a movement known as structured programming, which advocated a systematic, rational approach to program construction. Structured programming is the basis for all that has been done since in, including.' Dijkstra's ideas about structured programming helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of the professional discipline of, enabling programmers to organize and manage increasingly complex software projects. Shunting-yard algorithm (1960) [ ] In, the is a method for parsing mathematical expressions specified in. It can be used to produce output in (RPN) or as an (AST). The was invented by and named the 'shunting yard' algorithm because its operation resembles that of a. Dijkstra first described the Shunting Yard Algorithm in the report.

Schoonschip (early computer algebra system) (1963) [ ] In 1963/64, during an extended stay at SLAC, Dutch theoretical physicist designed the computer program for symbolic manipulation of mathematical equations, which is now considered the very first. Mutual exclusion (mutex) (1965) [ ] In, refers to the requirement of ensuring that no two are in their at the same time; it is a basic requirement in, to prevent.

The requirement of mutual exclusion was first identified and solved by in his seminal 1965 paper titled Solution of a problem in concurrent programming control, and is credited as the first topic in the study of. Semaphore (programming) (1965) [ ] The concept was invented by Dijkstra in 1965 and the concept has found widespread use in a variety of operating systems. Sleeping barber problem (1965) [ ] In, the is a classic and problem between multiple. The problem is analogous to that of keeping a barber working when there are customers, resting when there are none and doing so in an orderly manner. The was introduced by in 1965.

Banker's algorithm (deadlock prevention algorithm) (1965) [ ] The is a and avoidance developed by that tests for safety by simulating the allocation of predetermined maximum possible amounts of all, and then makes an 's-state' check to test for possible deadlock conditions for all other pending activities, before deciding whether allocation should be allowed to continue. The algorithm was developed in the design process for the and originally described (in ) in EWD108.

The name is by analogy with the way that bankers account for constraints. Dining philosophers problem (1965) [ ] In, the is an example problem often used in algorithm design to illustrate issues and techniques for resolving them. It was originally formulated in 1965 by as a student exam exercise, presented in terms of computers to peripherals. Soon after, gave the problem its present formulation. Dekker's algorithm (1965) [ ] is the first known correct solution to the problem in. Dijkstra attributed the solution to Dutch mathematician in his manuscript on cooperating sequential processes. It allows two threads to share a single-use resource without conflict, using only for communication.

Dekker's algorithm is the first published software-only, two-process mutual exclusion algorithm. THE multiprogramming system (1968) [ ] The was a computer designed by a team led by, described in monographs in 1965–66 and published in 1968. Van Wijngaarden grammar (1968) [ ] (also vW-grammar or W-grammar) is a that provides a technique to define potentially infinite in a finite number of rules.

The formalism was invented by to rigorously define some syntactic restrictions that previously had to be formulated in, despite their formal content. Typical applications are the treatment of gender and number in natural language syntax and the well-definedness of identifiers in programming languages. The technique was used and developed in the definition of the. It is an example of the larger class of. Structured programming (1968) [ ] In 1968, was in a. Dijkstra was one of a small group of academics and industrial programmers who advocated a new to improve the quality of programs. Dijkstra coined the phrase ' and during the 1970s this became the new programming orthodoxy.

Is often regarded as “goto-less programming”. But as Bertrand Meyer notes, “As the first book on the topic [ Structured Programming by Dijkstra, Dahl, and Hoare] shows, structured programming is about much more than control structures and the. Its principal message is that programming should be considered a scientific discipline based on mathematical rigor.”, structured programming – especially in the 1970s and 1980s – significantly influenced the birth of many modern such as,,, and. The version which incorporates the concepts of structured programming, was released in 1978. The language was a considerably extended and enhanced version of the popular (see also: ).

Since C++ was developed from a more traditional, it is a ', rather than a pure language. EPROM (1971) [ ] An or erasable programmable, is a type of memory that retains its data when its is switched off. Development of the EPROM memory cell started with investigation of faulty where the gate connections of had broken. Stored charge on these isolated gates changed their properties.

The EPROM was invented by the -born Israeli electrical engineer in 1971, who was awarded US patent 3660819 in 1972. Self-stabilization (1974) [ ] is a concept of in.

A distributed system that is self-stabilizing will end up in a correct no matter what state it is initialized with. That correct state is reached after a finite number of execution steps. Many years after the seminal paper of in 1974, this concept remains important as it presents an important foundation for and. Became its own area of study in research, and Dijkstra set the stage for the next generation of computer scientists such as,, and. As a result, Dijkstra's paper received the 2002 (later renamed as or since 2003). Predicate transformer semantics (1975) [ ] transformer semantics were introduced by in his seminal paper '.

Guarded Command Language (1975) [ ] The (GCL) is a language defined by for. It combines programming concepts in a compact way, before the program is written in some practical programming language. Van Emde Boas tree (VEB tree) (1975) [ ] A (or Van Emde Boas priority queue, also known as a vEB tree, is a which implements an with m-bit integer keys. The was invented by a team led by computer scientist in 1975. ABC (programming language) (1980s) [ ] is an imperative general-purpose and developed at, by,, and. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and intended to be used instead of,,. It is not meant to be a systems-programming language but is intended for teaching or prototyping.

The language had a major influence on the design of the (as a counterexample);, who developed Python, previously worked for several years on the ABC system in the early 1980s. Dijkstra-Scholten algorithm (1980) [ ] The (named after and ) is an for detecting in a. The was proposed by Dijkstra and Scholten in 1980. Smoothsort (1981) [ ] is a. It is a variation of developed by in 1981. Like heapsort, smoothsort's upper bound is ( n log n).

The advantage of smoothsort is that it comes closer to O( n) time if the, whereas heapsort averages O( n log n) regardless of the initial sorted state. Amsterdam Compiler Kit (1983) [ ] The (ACK) is a fast, lightweight and suite and toolchain developed by and at the in. It is 's native. The ACK was originally closed-source software (that allowed to be distributed for MINIX as a special case), but in April 2003 it was released under an license. It has frontends for,,,, and. The ACK's notability stems from the fact that in the early 1980s it was one of the first portable compilation systems designed to support multiple source languages and target platforms. Eight-to-fourteen modulation (1985) [ ] EFM () was invented by Dutch electrical engineer in 1985.

EFM is a data encoding technique – formally, a – used by CDs, laserdiscs and pre-. MINIX (1987) [ ] (from 'mini-') is a computer based on a. Early versions of MINIX were created by for educational purposes.

Starting with, the primary aim of development shifted from education to the creation of a and self-healing microkernel OS. MINIX is now developed as. MINIX was first released in 1987, with its complete source code made available to universities for study in courses and research.

It has been since it was re-licensed under the in April 2000. Tanenbaum created MINIX at the in to exemplify the principles conveyed in his, (1987), that described as 'the book that launched me to new heights'. Amoeba (operating system) (1989) [ ] is a developed by and others at the in. The aim of the Amoeba project was to build a system that makes an entire network of computers appear to the user as a. The was originally developed for this platform. Python (programming language) (1989) [ ] is a widely used,. Its design philosophy emphasizes code, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer than would be possible in languages such as.

The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale. Python supports multiple, including, and or styles.

It features a system and automatic and has a large and comprehensive. Python was conceived in the late 1980s and its implementation was started in December 1989 by at in the as a successor to the (itself inspired by ) capable of and interfacing with the. Van Rossum is Python's principal author, and his continuing central role in deciding the direction of Python is reflected in the title given to him by the Python community, (BDFL). Vim (text editor) (1991) [ ] is a written by the Dutch programmer and first released publicly in 1991.

Based on the editor common to systems, Vim carefully separated the user interface from editing functions. [ ] This allowed it to be used both from a and as a standalone application in a. [ ] Blender (1995) [ ].

A short by the Blender Institute, part of the. Like the foundation's previous film, the film was made using.

Is a professional product used for creating,, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and. Blender's features include,,,,,, simulation, simulation,,,,,, and. Alongside the modelling features it also has an integrated. Blender has been successfully used in the in several parts of the world including Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. The Dutch animation studio and Not a Number Technologies (NaN) developed Blender as an in-house application, with the primary author being.

The name Blender was inspired by a song by, from the album. EFMPlus (1995) [ ] is the used in DVDs and, a more efficient successor to EFM used in CDs. It was created by Dutch electrical engineer, who also designed EFM.

It is 6% less efficient than 's code, which resulted in a capacity of 4.7 gigabytes instead of SD's original 5 GB. The advantage of is its superior resilience against disc damage such as scratches and fingerprints. Economics [ ] Dutch East India Company [ ]. A from the (VOC), dating from 7 November 1623. The VOC was the first company in history to actually issue and of to the general public. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. The VOC was also the first company to use a fully-fledged (including the and the ) as a crucial channel to raise medium-term and long-term funds.

The (, or VOC), founded in 1602, was the world’s first,, – as well as its first government-backed trading. It was the first to issue of and what evolved into.

The VOC was also the first company to actually issue and through a. In 1602, the VOC issued shares that were made tradable on the. This invention enhanced the ability of to attract from investors as they could now easily dispose their shares. The company was known throughout the world as the VOC thanks to its logo featuring those initials, which became the first global.

The company's also became the first global. First megacorporation (1602) [ ]. A () minted in 1744 by the. The was arguably the first, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, coin money and establish colonies. Many economic and political historians consider the as the most valuable, powerful and influential in the world history. The VOC existed for almost 200 years from its founding in 1602, when the granted it a 21-year monopoly over Dutch operations in Asia until its demise in 1796.

During those two centuries (between 1602 and 1796), the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only 882,412 people from 1500 to 1795, and the fleet of the (later ), the VOC's nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2,690 ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century. Dutch auction (17th century) [ ] A is also known as an open descending price auction.

Named after the famous of Dutch bulbs in the 17th century, it is based on a pricing system devised by Nobel Prize–winning economist. In the traditional Dutch, the auctioneer begins with a high asking price which is lowered until some participant is willing to accept the auctioneer's price. The winning participant pays the last announced price. Dutch auction is also sometimes used to describe online auctions where several identical goods are sold simultaneously to an equal number of high bidders.

In addition to cut flower sales in the Netherlands, Dutch auctions have also been used for perishable commodities such as fish and tobacco. First modern art market (17th century) [ ] The was the birthplace of the first modern ( open art market or free art market). The seventeenth-century Dutch were the pioneering, successfully combining and together as we would recognise it today. Until the 17th century, commissioning works of art was largely the preserve of the church, monarchs and aristocrats. The emergence of a powerful and wealthy middle class in, though, produced a radical change in as the new Dutch bourgeoisie bought art. For the first time, the direction of art was shaped by relatively broadly-based demand rather than religious dogma or royal whim, and the result was a market which today's dealers and collectors would find familiar. With the creation of the first large-scale open art market, prosperous Dutch merchants, artisans, and civil servants bought paintings and prints in unprecedented numbers.

Foreign visitors were astonished that even modest members of Dutch society such as farmers and bakers owned multiple works of art. Concept of corporate governance (17th century) [ ] The seventeenth-century Dutch businessmen were the pioneers in laying the basis for modern., an Amsterdam businessman and a sizeable shareholder of the, became the first recorded investor to actually consider the 's problems. In 1609, he complained of the VOC's shoddy. On January 24, 1609, Le Maire filed a petition against the VOC, marking the first recorded expression of. In what is the first recorded dispute, Le Maire formally charged that the directors (the VOC's board of directors – the Heeren XVII) sought to “retain another’s money for longer or use it ways other than the latter wishes” and petitioned for the liquidation of the VOC in accordance with standard business practice. The first happened in 1622, among Dutch East India Company (VOC) investors who complained that the company account books had been “smeared with bacon” so that they might be “eaten by dogs.” The investors demanded a “reeckeninge,” a proper financial audit. The 1622 campaign by the of the is a testimony of genesis of () in which shareholders staged protests by distributing pamphlets and complaining about management self enrichment and secrecy.

Modern concept of foreign direct investment (17th century) [ ] The construction in 1619 of a train-oil factory on in the islands by the, and the acquisition in 1626 of by the are referred to as the earliest cases of (FDI) in Dutch and world history. Throughout the seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the (GWIC/WIC) also began to create trading settlements around the globe. Their trading activities generated enormous wealth, making the one of the most prosperous countries of that time.

The Dutch Republic's extensive occasioned an episode in the industrial development of early-modern Sweden, where arms merchants like and the Trip brothers, invested in iron mines and iron works, another early example of. First modern market-oriented economy (17th century) [ ] It was in the that some important industries () such as,, and were developed on a large-scale export-driven model for the first time in history. The ship building district of, near, became the first in the world, with around 900 industrial windmills at the end of the 17th century, but there were industrialized towns and cities on a smaller scale also.

Other industries that saw significant growth were,, printing, the industry (with spin-offs in vegetable oils, like and ), and industries that used the cheap peat fuel, like and (, and ). The Dutch industry was of modern dimensions, inclining strongly toward standardised, repetitive methods. It was highly mechanized and used many labor-saving devices-wind-powered, powered feeders for saw, block and tackles, great cranes to move heavy timbers-all of which increased productivity. Dutch benefited from various design innovations which increased carrying capacity and cut costs.

First capitalist nation-state (foundations of modern capitalism) (17th century) [ ]. A Satire of Tulip Mania by Jan Brueghel the Younger (ca. 1640) depicts speculators as brainless monkeys in contemporary upper-class dress. Generally considered to be the first recorded (or ), the of 1636–1637 was an episode in which contract prices for of the recently introduced reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed. The term 'Tulip Mania' is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble (when asset prices deviate from ). Economic historians consider the Netherlands as the first predominantly.

The development of European capitalism began among the,, and the. It spread to the European interstate system, eventually resulting in the world's first, the Dutch Republic of the seventeenth century. The Dutch were the first to develop on a nationwide scale (as opposed to earlier ). They also played a pioneering role in the emergence of the. Aptly titled his work, capturing the astonishing novelty and success of the in the Dutch Republic. Theorists (including and ) often consider the of the in the 17th century as the first in (followed by hegemonies of the United Kingdom in the 19th century and the United States in the 20th century).

First modern economic miracle (1585–1714) [ ] The from a possession of the in the 1590s to the foremost maritime and economic power in the world has been called the “Dutch ” (or “Dutch ”) by many economic historians, including. Until the 18th century, the was the most advanced and sophisticated ever seen in history. During their, the provinces of the rose from almost total obscurity as the poor cousins of the industrious and heavily urbanised southern regions () to become the world leader in economic success. The Netherlands introduced many financial innovations that made it a major economic force – and Amsterdam became the world center for international finance. Its manufacturing towns grew so quickly that by the middle of the century the Netherlands had supplanted France as the leading industrial nation of the world.” Dynamic macroeconomic model (1936) [ ] Dutch economist developed the first national comprehensive, which he first built for the Netherlands and after later applied to the United States and the United Kingdom. Fairtrade certification (1988) [ ] The concept of fair trade has been around for over 40 years, but a formal labelling scheme emerged only in the 1980s. At the initiative of Mexican coffee farmers, the world's first Fairtrade labeling organisation,, was launched in the Netherlands on 15 November 1988 by, and Dutch ecumenical development agency.

It was branded ' after a fictional Dutch character who opposed the exploitation of coffee pickers in Dutch colonies. Finance [ ] Concept of bourse ( 13th century) [ ] An, or, is a highly organized where (especially) tradable,,,, and contracts are sold and bought.

The term bourse is derived from the 13th-century inn named in,, where traders and foreign merchants from across Europe conducted business in the late medieval period. The building, which was established by Robert van der Buerze as a hostelry, had operated from 1285. Its managers became famous for offering judicious financial advice to the traders and merchants who frequented the building. This service became known as the 'Beurze Purse' which is the basis of bourse, meaning an organised place of exchange. Foundations of stock market (1602) [ ]. Courtyard of the () by, 1653. The is said to have been the first to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.

It was in seventeenth-century Amsterdam that the global began to take on its modern form. Amsterdam was also the first city where that were based on were used freely for a long period of time. The seventeenth-century Dutch merchants laid the foundations for modern that now influences greatly the global economy.

It was in the Dutch Republic that a fully-fledged stock market was established and developed for the first time in history. The Dutch merchants were also the pioneers in developing the basic techniques of. Although bond sales by municipalities and states can be traced to the thirteenth century, the origin of modern that specialize in creating and sustaining in goes back to the formation of the in the year 1602. Dutch investors were the first to trade their at a regular.

The is considered the oldest in the world. It was established in 1602 by the for dealings in its printed stocks and bonds. Here, the Dutch also pioneered,,, debt-equity swaps,,, unit and other. Unlike the competing companies, the allowed anyone (including ) to purchase in the at the fully operational. The practice of was also invented in the Dutch Republic.

In 1609,, an Amsterdam merchant and a sizeable shareholder of the (VOC), became the first recorded in history. The first recorded ban on also took place in the Dutch Republic in the same year. In the early 17th century, Dutch merchants invented the – that of the VOC. Also, the Dutch experienced the first recorded in history, the of 1636–1637. Since 1602, stock market trading has come a long way. But basically, the concept and principle of stock market trading is still upheld and is still being implemented up to now. First fully functioning (fully-fledged) financial market (17th century) [ ] The Dutch Republic ( in particular) was the birthplace of the world's first fully functioning, with the birth of a fully fledged.

For debt and are used to raise long-term funds. New and are sold in (including ) and (including ).

While the produced the first transferable, they didn't develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged: corporate. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) became the first to offer of to the general public. Dutch investors were the first to trade their at a regular. In 1602 the () established an in where the VOC and could be traded in a. The buying and selling of the VOC's (including and bonds) became the basis of the first official.

The Dutch were also the first to use a fully-fledged (including and ) to finance (such as the and the ). It was in seventeenth-century Amsterdam that the global began to take on its modern form. Foundations of corporate finance (17th century) [ ] What is now known as has its modern roots in policies of the (VOC) in the 17th century and some basic aspects of modern corporate finance began to appear in financial activities of Dutch businessmen in the early 17th century. Initial public offering (1602) [ ] The earliest form of a which issued public shares was the publicani during the.

In 1602, the ( or VOC) became the first modern company to issue shares to the public, thus launching the first modern (IPO). The VOC held the first public offering of shares in history shortly after its founding. With this first recorded initial public offering (), the VOC brought in 6,424,588 and the company subsequently grew to become the first true in the world. Institutional foundations of investment banking (17th century) [ ] The Dutch were the pioneers in laying the basis for, allowing the risk of loans to be distributed among thousands of investors in the early seventeenth century.

Institutional foundations of central banking (first central bank) (1609) [ ]. The in Amsterdam, by, c. In the picture of the centre of highly cosmopolitan and tolerant Amsterdam, / figures (possibly or merchants) are shown negotiating. The ’s institutional innovations greatly helped lay the foundations for modern (international) that now dominate the. By the first decades of the 18th century, Amsterdam had become the world’s leading for more than a century, having developed a sophisticated with, fully-fledged, certain kinds of, and. Amsterdam was the first modern model of an international (global) that now operated in several countries around the world. Foundations of modern financial system (17th century) [ ] In the early 17th century, the Dutch revolutionized domestic and international finance by inventing – that of the and founding a proto-, the Wisselbank.

In 1609, the Dutch had already had a government for some decades. Shortly thereafter, the had in place, in one form or another, all of the key components of a modern: formalized public credit, stable money, elements of a banking system, a central bank of sorts and securities markets. The Dutch Republic went on to become that century's leading economy. Concept of investment fund (1774) [ ] The first has its roots back in 1774. A Dutch merchant named Adriaan van Ketwich formed a trust named Eendragt Maakt Magt. The name of Ketwich's fund translates to 'unity creates strength'.

In response to the of 1772–1773, Ketwich’s aim was to provide small investors an opportunity to diversify (Rouwenhorst & Goetzman, 2005). This investment scheme can be seen as the first. In the years following, near-mutual funds evolved and become more diverse and complex. Mutual fund (1774) [ ] The first were established in 1774 in the. Amsterdam-based businessman Abraham van Ketwich (a.k.a.

Adriaan van Ketwich) is often credited as the originator of the world's first. The first mutual fund outside the Netherlands was the Foreign & Colonial Government Trust, which was established in London in 1868. Foods and drinks [ ] Gibbing (14th century) [ ] is the process of preparing salt (or ), in which the gills and part of the gullet are removed from the fish, eliminating any bitter taste. The liver and pancreas are left in the fish during the salt-curing process because they release enzymes essential for flavor. The fish is then cured in a barrel with one part salt to 20 herring. Today many variations and local preferences exist on this process.

The process of was invented by Willem Beuckelszoon (aka Willem Beuckelsz, William Buckels or William Buckelsson), a 14th-century Fisherman. The invention of this fish preservation technique led to the Dutch becoming a seafaring power. This invention created an export industry for salt that was monopolized by the Dutch. Doughnut (17th century) [ ] Many people believe it was the Dutch who invented.

A Dutch made from potatoes had a round shape like a ball, but, like, needed a little longer time when fried to cook the inside thoroughly. These potato-balls developed into doughnuts when the Dutch finally made them into ring-shapes reduce frying time. [ ] Gin (jenever) (1650) [ ]. A selection of bottled offered at a. Is a which derives its predominant flavour from ( Juniperus communis).

From its earliest origins in the, gin has evolved over the course of a millennium from a to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin was developed on the basis of the older, and become widely popular in when, leader of the, occupied the British throne with his wife Mary. Today, the gin category is one of the most popular and widely distributed range of spirits, and is represented by products of various origins, styles, and flavour profiles that all revolve around juniper as a common ingredient.

The physician is often credited with the invention of gin in the mid 17th century, although the existence of genever is confirmed in Massinger's play The Duke of Milan (1623), when Dr. Sylvius would have been but nine years of age. It is further claimed that British soldiers who provided support in against the Spanish in 1585, during the, were already drinking () for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch Courage is believed to have originated.

The earliest known written reference to genever appears in the 13th century encyclopaedic work Der Naturen Bloeme (), and the earliest printed genever recipe from 16th century work Een Constelijck Distileerboec (Antwerp). Stroopwafel (1780s) [ ] A (also known as syrup waffle, treacle waffle or caramel waffle) is a made from two thin layers of baked batter with a caramel-like filling the middle. They were first made in in the 1780s. The traditional way to eat the stroopwafel is to place it atop of a drinking vessel with a hot beverage (coffee, tea or chocolate) inside that fits the diameter of the waffle. The heat from the rising steam warms the waffle and slightly softens the inside and makes the waffle soft on one side while still crispy on the other. Cocoa powder (foundations of modern chocolate industry) (1828) [ ].

In 1828, revolutionized the modern industry by inventing a hydraulic press that squeezed the (fat) out of the, producing. In 1815, Dutch chemist introduced to, which reduced its bitterness. In the 1820s, Casparus van Houten, Sr. Patented an inexpensive method for pressing the fat from roasted.

He created a press to remove about half the natural fat () from, which made chocolate both cheaper to produce and more consistent in quality. This innovation introduced the modern era of. Van Houten developed the first producing machine in the Netherlands. Van Houten's machine – a hydraulic press – reduced the content by nearly half.

This created a 'cake' that could be pulverized into, which was to become the basis of all products. The press separated the greasy from seeds, leaving a purer behind.

This powder, much like the instant used today, was easier to stir into and. As a result, another very important discovery was made: solid chocolate. By using cocoa powder and low amounts of, it was then possible to manufacture. The term ' then came to mean, rather than. Dutch-process chocolate (1828) [ ] Dutch-processed chocolate or Dutched chocolate is chocolate that has been treated with an alkalizing agent to modify its color and give it a milder taste compared to 'natural cocoa' extracted with the. It forms the basis for much of modern chocolate, and is used in,, and baking. The Dutch process was developed in the early 19th century by Dutch chocolate maker, whose father Casparus is responsible for the development of the method of removing fat from cacao beans by around 1828, forming the basis for cocoa powder.

Law and jurisprudence [ ] Doctrine of the Freedom of the Seas (foundations of the Law of the Sea/UNCLOS) (1609) [ ] In 1609,, the Dutch jurist who is generally known as the father of modern, published his book ( The Free Sea), which first formulated the notion of. He developed this idea into a. It is said to be 'the first, and classic, exposition of the doctrine of the freedom of the seas' which has been the essence and backbone of the modern. It is generally assumed that Grotius first propounded the principle of, although all countries in the and other Asian seas accepted the right of long before Grotius wrote his De Jure Praedae ( On the Law of Spoils) in the year of 1604. His work sparked a debate in the seventeenth century over whether states could exclude the vessels of other states from certain waters. Grotius won this debate, as freedom of the seas became a universally recognized legal principle, associated with concepts such as communication, trade and peace. Grotius's notion of the freedom of the seas would persist until the mid-twentieth century, and it continues to be applied even to this day for much of the, though the application of the concept and the scope of its reach is changing.

Secularized natural law (foundations of modern international law) (1625) [ ] The publication of ( On the Laws of War and Peace) by Hugo Grotius in 1625 had marked the emergence of as an 'autonomous legal science'. Grotius’s, published in 1625, is best known as the first systematic treatise on, but to thinkers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it seemed to set a new agenda in moral and political philosophy across the board. Grotius developed pivotal treatises on freedom of the seas, the law of spoils, the laws of war and peace and he created an autonomous place for international law as its own discipline.

’s Historical and Critical Account of the Science of Morality, attached to his translation of ’s Law of Nature and Nations in 1706, praised Grotius as “the first who broke the ice” of “the Scholastic Philosophy; which [had] spread itself all over Europe” (1749: 67, 66). Grotius' truly distinctive contribution to and ( or in particular) was that he.

Grotius had divorced from and by grounding it solely in the social nature and natural of man. When Grotius, considered by many to be the founder of modern natural law theory (or secular natural law), said that would retain its validity 'even if God did not exist' ( etiamsi daremus non esse Deum), he was making a clear break with the classical tradition of natural law., in lectures delivered in 1762 on the subject of and the, said that: “Jurisprudence is that science which inquires into the general principles which ought to be the foundation of laws of all nations. Grotius seems to have been the first who attempted to give the world anything like a regular system of natural jurisprudence, and his treatise, 'On the Laws of War and Peace, ' with all its imperfections, is perhaps at this day the most complete work on this subject.” Grotian conception of international society (1625) [ ] The became the most distinctive characteristic of the (or ) tradition in. This is why it is also called the Grotian tradition. According to it international politics takes place within international society in which are bound not only by rules of prudence or expediency but also of and. Grotius was arguably not the first to formulate such a doctrine. However, he was first to clearly define the idea of one society of states, governed not by force or warfare but by laws and mutual agreement to enforce those laws.

As many international law scholars noted, the spirit of the (1648) was preceded with the thoughts and ideas of Grotius. Observed: ‘Since the Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, and the writings of Hugo Grotius, there has been an explicit assumption that the international system is an association of.’ As declared: ‘The idea of international society which Grotius propounded was given concrete expression in the ’, affirming that ‘Grotius must be considered the intellectual father of this first general peace settlement of modern times’.

Cannon shot rule (1702) [ ] By the end of the seventeenth century, support was growing for some limitation to the seaward extent of. What emerged was the so-called 'cannon shot rule', which acknowledged the idea that property rights could be acquired by physical occupation and in practice to the effective range of shore-based: about. The rule was long associated with, a Dutch jurist who, especially in his De Dominio Maris Dissertatio (1702), advocated a middle ground between the extremes of Mare Liberum and 's, accepting both the freedom of states to navigate and exploit the resources of the high seas and a right of coastal states to assert wide-ranging rights in a limited marine territory. Permanent Court of Arbitration (1899) [ ] The (PCA) is an based in in the Netherlands. The court was established in 1899 as one of the acts of the first, which makes it the oldest global institution for international dispute resolution. Its creation is set out under Articles 20 to 29 of the for the pacific settlement of international disputes, which was a result of the first. The most concrete achievement of the Conference was the establishment of the PCA as the first institutionalized global mechanism for the settlement of disputes between states.

The PCA encourages the resolution of disputes that involve states, state entities,, and private parties by assisting in the establishment of tribunals and facilitating their work. The court offers a wide range of services for the resolution of which the parties concerned have expressly agreed to submit for resolution under its auspices. Dutch-Jew 's role in the creation of the PCA at the first Hague Peace Conference (1899) earned him the in 1911. International Opium Convention (1912) [ ] The, sometimes referred to as the of 1912, signed on 23 January 1912 at, was the first international and is the core of the international control system. The adoption of the Convention was a turning point in, based on the recognition of the transnational nature of the drug problem and the principle of shared responsibility.

Marriage equality (legalization of same-sex marriage) (2001) [ ] was the first state to recognize a legal relationship for same-sex couples, establishing 'registered partnerships' very much like marriage in 1989. In 2001, the became the first nation in the world to grant. The first laws enabling same-sex marriage in modern times were enacted during the first decade of the 21st century. As of 29 March 2014, sixteen countries (,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ) and several sub-national jurisdictions (parts of and the ) allow same-sex couples to marry. Polls in various countries show that there is rising support for legally recognizing same-sex marriage across race, ethnicity, age, religion, political affiliation, and socioeconomic status.

Measurement [ ] Pendulum clock (first high-precision clock) (1656) [ ]. Christiaan Huygens – 'the most ingenious watchmaker of all time' () The first, employing the mechanism with a or timekeeper, were invented in Europe at around the start of the 14th century, and became the standard timekeeping device until the was invented in 1656. The remained the most accurate timekeeper until the 1930s, when were invented, followed by after World War 2. A pendulum clock uses a pendulum's arc to mark intervals of time.

From their invention until about 1930, the most accurate were clocks. Pendulum clocks cannot operate on vehicles or, because the disrupt the pendulum's motion, causing inaccuracies. The pendulum clock was invented by, based on the pendulum introduced. Although Galileo studied the as early as 1582, he never actually constructed a based on that design. Invented in 1656 and patented the following year.

He contracted the construction of his clock designs to, who actually built the. Concept of the standardization of the temperature scale (1665) [ ] Various authors have credited the invention of the to,,. The thermometer was. However, each inventor and each thermometer was unique – there was. In 1665 suggested using the and of water as standards.

The is now usually defined by two: the at which freezes into is defined as 32 degrees Fahrenheit (°F), and the of water is defined to be 212 °F, a 180 degree separation, as defined at and. In 1742, Swedish astronomer created a which was the reverse of the scale now known by the name ': 0 represented the boiling point of water, while 100 represented the freezing point of water. From 1744 until 1954, 0 °C was defined as the of and 100 °C was defined as the of water, both at a pressure of one with being the working material. Spiral-hairspring watch (first high-precision watch) (1675) [ ]. From its invention in 1675 by, the spiral () system for portable timekeepers, still used in industry today. The invention of the in the early 15th century allowed portable clocks to be built, evolving into the first by the 17th century, but these were not very accurate until the was added to the in the mid 17th century. Some dispute remains as to whether British scientist (his was a straight spring) or Dutch scientist was the actual inventor of the.

Huygens was clearly the first to successfully implement a spiral balance spring in a portable timekeeper. This is significant because up to that point the pendulum was the most reliable. This innovation increased watches' accuracy enormously, reducing error from perhaps several hours per day to perhaps 10 minutes per day, resulting in the addition of the to the face from around 1680 in Britain and 1700 in France. Like the invention of, Huygens' spiral () system of portable timekeepers, helped lay the foundations for the modern industry. The application of the spiral for ushered in a new era of accuracy for portable timekeepers, similar to that which the had introduced for. From its invention in 1675 by, the spiral () system for portable timekeepers, still used in industry today. Mercury thermometer (first practical, accurate thermometer) (1714) [ ].

A medical mercury-in-glass maximum thermometer. Fahrenheit's was far more reliable and accurate than any that had existed before, and the mercury thermometers in use today are made in the way Fahrenheit devised. Various authors have credited the invention of the to,,. The thermometer was.

Though Galileo is often said to be the inventor of the, what he produced were. The difference between a and a is that the latter has a scale. The first person to put a scale on a is variously said to be or Santorio Santorio in about 1611 to 1613. Before there was the, there was the earlier and closely related, best described as a thermometer without a. A thermoscope only showed the differences in, for example, it could show something was getting hotter. However, the thermoscope did not measure all the data that a thermometer could, for example an exact temperature in degrees. What can be considered the first modern thermometer, the with a standardized scale, was invented by German-Dutch scientist (who had settled in in 1701) in 1714.

Invented the first truly accurate using instead of and mixtures. He began constructing his own thermometers in 1714, and it was in these that he used mercury for the first time. Fahrenheit scale (first standardized temperature scale) (1724) [ ]. Thermometer with (symbol °F) and (symbol °C) units. Various authors have credited the invention of the to,,.

The thermometer was. However, each inventor and each thermometer was unique – there was. In 1665 suggested using the and of water as standards, and in 1694 proposed using them as fixed points on a universal scale. In 1701 proposed a scale of 12 degrees between the melting point of ice and. Finally in 1724 produced a which now (slightly adjusted). He could do this because he manufactured, using (which has a high ) for the first time and the quality of his production could provide a finer scale and greater reproducibility, leading to its general adoption. The was the first widely used.

By the end of the 20th century, most countries used the scale rather than the scale, though retained it as a supplementary scale used alongside Celsius. Fahrenheit remains the official scale for, the,, the, and the United States and associated territories. Snellen chart (1862) [ ] The Snellen chart is an used by eye care professionals and others to measure.

Snellen charts are named after Dutch ophthalmologist who developed the chart in 1862. Vision scientists now use a of this chart, designed by Ian Bailey and Jan Lovie. String galvanometer (1902) [ ] Previous to the, scientists used a machine called the to measure the heart's electrical activity, but this device was unable to produce results at a diagnostic level. Dutch physiologist developed the in the early 20th century, publishing the first registration of its use to record an in a book in 1902. The first human electrocardiogram was recorded in 1887, however only in 1901 was a quantifiable result obtained from the string galvanometer. Schilt photometer (1922) [ ] In 1922, Dutch astronomer invented the, a device that measures the light output of and, indirectly, their distances.

Medicine [ ] Clinical electrocardiography (first diagnostic electrocardiogram) (1902) [ ]. As done by In the 19th century it became clear that the heart generated electric currents. The first to systematically approach the heart from an electrical point-of-view was Augustus Waller, working in in, London. In 1911 he saw little clinical application for his work.

The breakthrough came when Einthoven, working in, used his more sensitive string galvanometer, than the that Waller used. Einthoven assigned the letters P, Q, R, S and T to the various deflections that it measured and described the electrocardiographic features of a number of cardiovascular disorders. He was awarded the 1924 for his discovery. Einthoven's triangle (1902) [ ] is an imaginary formation of three limb leads in a triangle used in, formed by the two shoulders and the pubis. The shape forms an inverted equilateral triangle with the heart at the center that produces zero when the voltages are summed. It is named after, who theorized its existence. First European blood bank (1940) [ ] When German bombers attacked in 1940 while was there, he organised the first in continental Europe.

It was located in the Zuidwal hospital in. Eleven patients were given blood transfusions in The Hague, six of whom survived. Donated blood was also used for victims of the, whither it was transported by civilian car.

Rotating drum dialysis machine (first practical artificial kidney) (1943) [ ]. An is a machine and its related devices which clean blood for patients who have an acute or chronic failure of their kidneys. The first artificial kidney was developed by Dutchman. The procedure of cleaning the blood by this means is called, a type of that is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost function due to.

It is a treatment and does not treat disease. Artificial heart (1957) [ ] On 12 December 1957, Kolff implanted an into a dog at Cleveland Clinic. The dog lived for 90 minutes. Kolff left Cleveland Clinic to start the Division of Artificial Organs at the and pursue his work on the artificial heart. Under his supervision, a team of surgeons, chemists, physicists and bioengineers developed an artificial heart and made it ready for industrial production. To help manage his many endeavors, Dr.

Kolff assigned project managers. Each project was named after its manager. Graduate student was the project manager for the artificial heart, which was subsequently renamed the Jarvik-7. Based on lengthy animal trials, this first artificial heart was successfully implanted into the thorax of patient in December 1982.

Clark survived 112 days with the device. Military [ ] Modern model of sea power (1585–1688) [ ] The has been considered by many political and military historians as the first modern (global). The was the first state to possess the full triad of foreign commerce, forward and and.

In the middle of the 17th century the was the most powerful in the world. The Dutch Republic had a that was larger than that of England, France, Germany, Portugal, and Spain combined. According to, the “modern version of sea power was invented by the Dutch. The system of global trade, investment, and military power the Dutch built in the seventeenth century was the envy and the wonder of the world at the time, and many of its basic features were adopted by the British and the Americans in subsequent years.” When the determined to achieve for, he came to the Dutch Republic to learn about, and nautical sciences. During in (1697) the engaged, with the help of Russian and Dutch assistants, many skilled workers such as builders of locks, fortresses, shipwrights and seamen. They had to help him with his modernization of Russia. The best-known sailor who made the journey from the Dutch Republic to was Norwegian-Dutch.

Cruys performed well in Russia and came be regarded as the architect of the. He became the first commander of the and the of the. Peter the Great designed his on the model of Amsterdam and gave it a Dutch name, Sankt Pieter Burkh (later Germanized into Saint Peterburg). In, there is an island which is still called (literally “”). The triangular man-made island took its name after a number of canals and shipbuilding facilities that rendered its appearance similar to Amsterdam. The Tsar chose to call his island “New Holland”, commemorating his enthusiasm for all things Dutch.

House of Orange-Nassau's military reforms (1590s–17th century) [ ]. By from his Wapenhandelinge. Dutch military reforms had considerable influences on the European warfare in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries in particular).

The began with reforms inaugurated by with his cousins and during the 1590s. Maurice developed a system of linear formations (linear tactics), discipline, drill and volley fire based on classical Roman methods that made his army more efficient and his command and control more effective. He also developed a 43-step drill for firing the that was included in an illustrated weapons manual by in 1607 ( Wapenhandelinghe or Exerise of Arms). This became known as the.

It was widely read and emulated in the rest of Europe. Adopting and perfecting the techniques pioneered by Maurice of Nassau several decades earlier, repeatedly proved his techniques by defeating the armies of Spain (1630–1632), an with resources fantastically larger than Sweden's during the. Served for a while in the army of the leader, and developed a fascination for practical technology. Maurice' s military innovations had considerable influences on Descartes'. Norden bombsight (1920s) [ ] The was designed by, a Dutch engineer educated in Switzerland who emigrated to the U.S. In 1920, he started work on the Norden bombsight for the. The first was produced in 1927.

It was essentially an analog computer, and bombardiers were trained in great secrecy on how to use it. The device was used to drop bombs accurately from an aircraft, supposedly accurate enough to hit a 100-foot circle from an altitude of 21,000 feet – but under actual combat situations, such an accuracy was never achieved. Submarine snorkel (1939) [ ] A submarine snorkel is a device that allows a submarine to operate submerged while still taking in air from above the surface. It was invented by the Dutchman J.J.

Wichers shortly before World War II and copied by the Germans during the war for use. Its common military name is snort. Goalkeeper CIWS (1975) [ ] is a (CIWS) still in use as of 2015. It is autonomous and completely automatic short-range defense of ships against highly maneuverable missiles, aircraft and fast maneuvering surface vessels. Once activated the system automatically performs the entire process from surveillance and detection to destruction, including selection of priority targets. Musical instruments [ ] Metronome (1812) [ ].

18th century from the, Paris. The the and modern. It also laid the foundations for the birth and development of and. In 1590 the Dutchmen (father and son) is sometimes claimed to have invented the first. Telescope (optical telescope) (1608) [ ] In 1608, and created the first practical. Crude telescopes and spyglasses may have been created much earlier, but Lippershey is believed to be the first to apply for a patent, which he failed to secure, after which he made it available for general use. A description of Lippershey's quickly reached, who created a working unit in 1609, with which he made the observations found in his of 1610.

Aerial telescope (1656) [ ] An is a type of very long, built in the second half of the 17th century, that did not use a tube. Instead, the objective was mounted on a pole, tree, tower, building or other structure on a swivel ball-joint. The observer stood on the ground and held the, which was connected to the objective by a string or connecting rod. By holding the string tight and maneuvering the eyepiece, the observer could aim the telescope at objects in the sky.

The idea for this type of telescope may have originated in the late 17th century with the Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist and his brother. Huygens eyepiece (first compound eyepiece) (1670s) [ ] consist of two with the plane sides towards the eye separated by an air gap. The lenses are called the eye lens and the field lens. The focal plane is located between the two lenses.

It was invented by in the late 1660s and was the first compound (multi-lens). Huygens discovered that two air spaced lenses can be used to make an eyepiece with zero transverse chromatic aberration. These eyepieces work well with the very long focal length telescopes (in Huygens day they were used with single element long focal length, including very long focal length ). This optical design is now considered obsolete since with today's shorter focal length telescopes the eyepiece suffers from short eye relief, high image distortion, chromatic aberration, and a very narrow apparent field of view.

Since these eyepieces are cheap to make they can often be found on inexpensive telescopes and microscopes. Because Huygens eyepieces do not contain cement to hold the lens elements, telescope users sometimes use these eyepieces in the role of 'solar projection', i.e. Projecting an image of the onto a screen. Other cemented eyepieces can be damaged by the intense, concentrated light of the Sun. Van Leeuwenhoek microscope (1670s) [ ]. Replica of microscope. Van Leeuwenhoek is considered to be the first to observe and describe ( ) using a.

Created at least 25, of differing types, of which only nine survive. His simple microscopes were made of silver or copper frames, holding hand-ground lenses. Those that have survived are capable of magnification up to 275 times.

It is suspected that Van Leeuwenhoek possessed units that could magnify up to 500 times. Using his handcrafted microscopes, he was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules, and which now referred to as. Cycloidal pendulum (1673) [ ] The was invented by in 1673. Its purpose is to eliminate the lack of of the ordinary simple pendulum.

This is achieved by making the mass point move on a instead of a. Pyrometer (1739) [ ] The, invented by, is a temperature measuring device. A simple type uses a placed either in a furnace or on the item to be measured. The voltage output of the thermocouple is read from a meter. Many different types of thermocouple are available, for measuring temperatures from −200 °C to above 1500 °C.

Leyden jar (first practical capacitor) (1745–1746) [ ]. A battery of four water-filled,,. The was the capable of storing an. A, or, is a device that 'stores' static between two on the inside and outside of a glass jar. It was the original form of a (originally known as a 'condenser'). It was invented independently by German cleric on 11 October 1745 and by Dutch scientist of () in 1745–1746.

The invention was named for the city. The Leyden jar was used to conduct many early in, and its discovery was of fundamental importance in the study of electricity. Previously, researchers had to resort to insulated conductors of large dimensions to store a charge. The Leyden jar provided a much more compact alternative.

Like many early electrical devices, there was no particular use for the Leyden jar at first, other than to allow scientists to do a greater variety of electrical experiments., for example, used a Leyden jar to store from in his famous in 1752. By doing so he proved that was really. The idea for the was discovered independently by two parties: German scientist and jurist, and Dutchmen and. These scientists developed the while working under a theory of electricity that saw electricity as a fluid, and hoped to develop the jar to 'capture' this fluid.

In 1744 von Kleist lined a glass jar with silver foil, and charged the foil with a friction machine. Kleist was convinced that a substantial electric charge could be collected when he received a significant shock from the device.

The effects of this 'Kleistian jar' were independently discovered around the same time by Dutch scientists and Cunaeus at the. Van Musschenbroek communicated on it with the French scientific community where it was called the.

Eisinga Planetarium (1781) [ ] The (Royal Eise Eisinga Planetarium) was built by in his home in,. It took Eisinga seven years to build his, completing it in 1781. The still exists and is the world's oldest working. Kipp's apparatus (1860) [ ], also called a Kipp generator, is designed for preparation of small volumes of gases.

It was invented around 1860 by Dutch pharmacist and widely used in chemical and for demonstrations in schools into the second half of the 20th century. Phase contrast microscope (1933) [ ]. 's invention permits the study of internal structure without the need to and thus kill the cells. In many objects such as parts in, bacteria and sperm tails are essentially fully transparent unless stained (and therefore killed). The difference in densities and composition within these objects however often gives rise to changes in the phase of light passing through them, hence they are sometimes called 'phase objects'.

Using the makes these structures visible and allows the study of living specimens. This phase contrast technique proved to be such an advancement in that Dutch physicist was awarded the in 1953. Magnetic horn (1961) [ ] The (also known as the Van der Meer horn) is a high-current, pulsed focusing device, invented by the Dutch physicist. It selects and focuses them into a sharp beam. Its original application was in the context of neutrino physics, where beams of pions have to be tightly focused. When the pions then decay into and or antineutrinos, an equally well-focused neutrino beam is obtained.

Pentium R Dual Core Cpu E5700 Ethernet Drivers Free Download. The muons were stopped in a wall of 3000 tons of iron and 1000 tons of concrete, leaving the neutrinos or antineutrinos to reach the. Sports and games [ ] Kolf (forerunner of modern golf) ( 13th century) [ ]. Kolf players on ice, 's painting (1625) A -like game ( in Dutch) is recorded as taking place on 26 February 1297, in a city called Loenen aan de Vecht, where the Dutch played a game with a stick and leather ball. The winner was whomever hit the ball with the least number of strokes into a target several hundred yards away.

Some scholars argue that this game of putting a small ball in a hole in the ground using clubs was also played in 17th-century Netherlands and that this predates the game in Scotland. Figure skating (prototype) (15th–17th centuries) [ ]. 's fall when she was, wood drawing from the 1498 edition of 's Vita of Lidwina.

The Dutch played a significant role in the history of (including and ). The first feature of in a was made in the 15th century. The picture, depicted, of ice skaters, falling on the ice. Another important aspect is a man seen in the background, who is skating on one leg.

This means that his skates must have had sharp edges similar to those found on modern. Until the 17th century, ice skating was mostly used for transportation. Some of the (including King ) who had fled to the during the Royal reign later returned to Britain, bringing with them the new sport.

Upon his return to England in 1658, the King brought two innovations in ice skating – a pair of iron skates and the. The was the first form of a gliding or skating motion made possible by the iron skate's two edges. However, was the focus of the Dutch, while the English developed modern.

Speed skating (15th–17th centuries) [ ]. Speed skating match on the near in 1828, which had developed in the Netherlands in the 17th century, was given a boost by the innovations in construction. Speed skating, or speedskating, is a competitive form of skating in which skaters race each other over a certain distance. Types of speed skating are, and. In the, long-track speed skating is usually referred to as just 'speed skating', while short-track speed skating is known as 'short track'.

Yachting (sport sailing) (17th century) [ ] Sailing, also known as, is a sport in which competitors race from point to point, or around a race course, in sail-powered. Yachting refers to recreational sailing or, the specific act of sailing or using other water vessels for sporting purposes. The invention of sailing is prehistoric, but the racing of sailing boats is believed to have started in the Netherlands some time in the 17th century. While living in the Dutch Republic, King Charles II of England fell in love with sailing and in 1660, took home the Dutch 66-foot he called. The sport's popularity spread across the British Isles. The world's first was founded in, Ireland in 1720. International Skating Union (1892) [ ] The (ISU) is the international for competitive ice skating disciplines, including,,, and.

It was founded in, Netherlands, in 1892, making it the oldest governing international federation and one of the oldest international sport federations. The () directly under the auspices of the ISU. Korfball (1902) [ ] (Korfbal in ) is a mixed gender, with similarities to and. A team consists of eight players; four female and four male. A team also includes a coach. It was founded in the Netherlands in 1902 by Nico Broekhuysen. Cruyff Turn (1974) [ ] The (also known as ), is a famous trick in, was perfected by the Dutch football player for whom the evasive trick was named.

To make this move, the player first looks to pass or cross the ball. However, instead of kicking it, he drags the ball behind his planted foot with the inside of his other foot, turns through 180 degrees and accelerates away. The trick was famously employed by Cruijff in the, first seen in the match against and soon widely copied. Total Football (1970s) [ ] The foundations for (Dutch: totaalvoetbal) were laid by Englishman who was the manager of., who played under Reynolds, later became manager of Ajax and refined the concept into what is known today as 'Total Football' ( Totaalvoetbal in Dutch language), using it in his training for the squad and the in the 1970s. It was further refined by after Michels left for.

Was the system's most famous exponent. Due to Cruyff's style of play, he is still referred to as the total footballer. Its cornerstone was a focus on positional interchange.

The invention of helped lay the foundations for the significant successes of at both club and in the 1970s. During that decade, the Dutch football rose from almost total obscurity to become a powerhouse in world football. In an interview published in the 50th anniversary issue of magazine, the captain of the team that won the,, went on to say: “The only team I’ve seen that did things differently was Holland. Since then everything looks more or less the same to me. Their ‘carousel’ style of play was amazing to watch and marvellous for the game.” Tiki-taka (1990s) [ ] and the play a style of football known as that has its roots in. Founded Tiki-taka (commonly spelled in Spanish) during his time as manager of (1988–1996).

The style was successfully adopted by the all-conquering (2008–2012) and 's Barcelona team (2009–2011). Tiki-taka style differs from Total Football in that it focuses on ball movement rather than positional interchange. Technology and engineering [ ] First pound lock in Europe (1373) [ ]. The turned the into a fresh water lake, and created 1650 km² of land. And have been ongoing through history, making the Dutch among the world's leading experts in.

The Dutch have demonstrated that it is perfectly feasible to safely live below sea level. About 30% of the Netherlands lies below. Also, about 55% of its area is vulnerable to, and about 29% is susceptible to river flooding. As a really small-sized country with few, about 1/6 of the entire country (about 7,000 km2 in total) has been reclaimed from the sea, lakes, and. This has led to an old Dutch saying, 'God created the world, but the Dutch created (or )'. The Netherlands revived the construction of during the 13th–14th century that had generally been discontinued since the fall of the.

They also contributed in the development of canal construction technology, such as introducing the first in Europe. The first in Europe was built by the Dutch in 1373 at, where a canal from joins the river. Thermostat (automatic temperature regulator) (1620s) [ ]. Bimetallic for buildings. In the 1620s, invented a thermostat to regulate the temperature of a chicken incubator. This is one of the first recorded modern devices. Around the 1620s, developed an temperature for a, motivated by his belief that base metals could be turned to gold by holding them at a precise constant temperature for long periods of time.

He also used this in an for hatching chickens. Feedback control system (1620s) [ ] Feedback control has been used for centuries to regulate engineered systems. In the 17th century, Drebbel invented one of the earliest devices to use, an chicken that used a damper controlled by a thermostat to maintain a constant temperature.

Magic lantern (first practical image projector; the forerunner of modern slide projector) (1659) [ ]. At the Museum.

The magic lantern (Laterna magica or Lanterna magica) was the forerunner of the modern. The is an, an early type of developed in the 17th century. People have been projecting images using concave mirrors and pin-hole cameras () since Roman times. But glass lens technology wasn't sufficiently developed to make advanced (such as and ) until the 17th century. With pinhole cameras and it was only possible to project an image of actual scene, such as an image of the sun, on a surface. The on the other hand could project a painted image on a surface, and marks the point where and became two different kinds of devices.

There has been some debate about who the original inventor of the magic lantern is, but the most widely accepted theory is that developed the original device in the late 1650s. However, other sources give credit to the German priest. He describes a device such as the magic lantern in his book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae. Huygens is credited because of his major innovation in lantern technology, which was the replacement of images etched on mirrors from earlier lanterns such as Kircher’s with images painted on glass. This is what paved the way for the use of colour and for double-layered slide projections (generally used to simulate movement).

The first allusion to a 'magic lantern' is by Huygens in the 1650s and he is generally credited with inventing it – though he didn't want to admit it, considering it frivolous. Huygens was the first to describe a fully functioning, one he made, and wrote about it in a work in 1659. Huygens magic lantern has been described as the predecessor of today’s and the forerunner of the.

Images were hand painted onto the glass slide until the mid-19th century when photographic slides were employed. Huygens introduced this curiosity to the Danish mathematician who realized its commercial value for entertainment and traveled through Europe – mostly France and Italy – demonstrating his machine to foreign princes and selling them replicas for their own amusement. The forerunner of the modern as well as moving pictures, retained their popularity for centuries and were also the first optical toy to be used for family entertainment in the home. Fire hose (1673) [ ] In Amsterdam, the Superintendent of the Fire Brigade,, and his son Nicholaas took firefighting to its next step with the fashioning of the first in 1673. Gunpowder engine (first practical rudimentary internal combustion piston engine) (1678–80) [ ].

Huygens' is often considered as the earliest recognizable forerunner of modern. A, also known as an explosion engine or Huygens' engine, is a type of using as its. It was considered essentially as the first. The concept was first explored during the 17th century, most notably by the Dutch scientist.

In 1678 he outlined a consisting of a vertical tube containing a. Was inserted into the tube and lit through a small hole at the base, like a.

The expanding would drive the piston up the tube until the reached a point near the top. Here, the piston uncovered holes in the tube that allowed any remaining hot gasses to escape. The weight of the piston and the formed by the cooling gasses in the now-closed cylinder drew the piston back into the tube, lifting a test mass to provide power. According to sources, a single example of this sort of was built in 1678 or 79 using a cannon as the cylinder. The cylinder was held down to a base where the gunpowder sat, making it a design.

The gasses escaped via two leather tubes attached at the top of the barrel. When the piston reached them the gasses blew the tubes open, and when the fell, gravity pulled the down causing the tubes droop to the side of the cylinder, sealing the holes. Huygens’ presented a paper on his invention in 1680, A New Motive Power by Means of Gunpowder and Air.

By 1682, the device had successfully shown that a dram (1/16th of an ounce) of gunpowder, in a cylinder seven or eight feet high and fifteen or eighteen inches in diameter, could raise seven or eight boys (or about 1,100 pounds) into the air, who held the end of the rope. Hollander beater (1680s) [ ] The is a machine developed by the Dutch in 1680 to produce from -containing plant fibers. It replaced stamp mills for preparing pulp because the Hollander could produce in one day the same quantity of pulp that a stamp mill could produce in eight. Gas lighting (1783) [ ] In 1783, -born chemist used for and developed the first form of. Meat slicer (1898) [ ] A, also called a slicing machine, deli slicer or simply a slicer, is a tool used in shops and to slice and.

The first meat slicer was invented by Wilhelm van Berkel (Wilhelmus Adrianus van Berkel) in in 1898. Older models of meat slicer may be operated by, while newer ones generally use an. Pentode (1926) [ ] A pentode is an electronic device having five active. The term most commonly applies to a three-grid (thermionic valve), which was invented by the Dutchman in 1926. Philishave (1939) [ ] was the for manufactured by the Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care unit of Philips (in the US, the name is used). The Philishave shaver was invented by Philips engineer, who used rotating cutters instead of the reciprocating cutters that had been used in previous electric shavers. Gyrator (1948) [ ] A is a, linear, lossless, electrical invented by Tellegen as a hypothetical fifth after the,, and.

Traffic enforcement camera (1958) [ ] Dutch company Gatsometer BV, founded by the 1950s driver, invented the first traffic enforcement camera. Gatsonides wished to better monitor his speed around the corners of a race track and came up with the device in order to improve his time around the circuit. The company developed the first for use with road traffic and is the world's largest supplier of speed-monitoring camera systems. Because of this, in some countries speed cameras are sometimes referred to as '.

They are also sometimes referred to as 'photo radar', even though many of them do not use radar. The first systems introduced in the late 1960s used, replaced by beginning in the late 1990s. Variomatic (1958) [ ] is the stepless, fully of the Dutch car manufacturer, originally developed. The Variomatic was introduced in 1958 (), the first automatic gear box made in the Netherlands. It continues in use in.

Variomatic was the first commercially successful (CVT). Red light camera (1965) [ ] A is a that captures an image of a vehicle that enters an intersection against a red traffic light. By automatically photographing such vehicles, the camera produces evidence that assists authorities in their enforcement of traffic laws. The first system was introduced in 1965, using tubes stretched across the road to detect the violation and trigger the camera. One of the first developers of these red light camera systems was Dutch company. Stochastic cooling (1968) [ ] is a form of. It is used in some and to control the emission of.

This process uses the electrical signals that the individual generate in a feedback loop to reduce the tendency of individual particles to move away from other particles in the beam. This technique was invented and applied at the, and later the, at in Geneva, Switzerland by Dutch physicist. By increasing the particle density to close to the required energy, this technique improved the beam quality and, inter alia, brought the discovery of within reach.

Clap skate (1980) [ ] The (also called clapskates, slap skates, slapskates) is a type of ice skate used in speed skating. Clap skates were developed at the Faculty of Human Movement Sciences of the of Amsterdam, led by, although the idea is much older. Van Ingen Schenau, who started work on a hinged speed skate in 1979, created his first prototype in 1980 and finished his PhD thesis on the subject in 1981 using the premise that a skater would benefit from extended movement keeping the blade on the ice, allowing the calf muscles more time to exert force. Transportation [ ] Ice skate improvements (14th–15th centuries) [ ].

During the 13th and 14th century, wooden skates with metal blades were introduced by Dutch. These ice skates were made of steel, with sharpened edges on the bottom to aid movement.

The construction of modern has stayed largely the same since then. In the 14th century, the Dutch started using wooden platform skates with flat iron bottom runners. The skates were attached to the skater's shoes with leather straps and poles were used to propel the. Around 1500, the Dutch shifted to a narrow metal double edged blade, so the skater could now push and glide with his feet, eliminating the need for a pole.

Herring Buss (15th century) [ ] A (: Haring Buis) was a type of seagoing, used by Dutch and Flemish fishermen in the 15th through early 19th centuries. The Buis was first adapted for use as a fishing vessel in the Netherlands, after the invention of made it possible to preserve herring at sea.

This made longer voyages feasible, and hence enabled Dutch fishermen to follow the herring far from the coasts. The first herring buss was probably built in around 1415. The last one was built in in 1841. Yacht (1580s) [ ].

Dutch, 1677, a type of originally designed as a dedicated cargo vessel. Originating from the Netherlands in the 16th century, the vessel was designed to facilitate transoceanic delivery with the maximum of space and crew efficiency.

The inexpensive ship could be built in large numbers. This ship class was credited with enhancing Dutch competitiveness in international trade and was widely employed by the Dutch East India Company in the 17th and 18th centuries. The fluyt was a significant factor in the 17th century rise of the. Wind-powered sawmill (1592) [ ]. De Salamander, a wind-driven in was the inventor of the wind-powered. Prior to the invention of, boards were rived and planed, or more often sawn by two men with a using saddleblocks to hold the log and a pit for the pitman who worked below and got the benefit of sawdust in his eyes.

Sawing was slow and required strong and durable sawmen. The topsawer had to be the stronger of the two because the saw was pulled in turn by each man, and the lower had the advantage of gravity.

The topsawyer also had to guide the saw to produce a plank of even thickness. This was often done by following a chalkline. Early sawmills adapted the whipsaw to mechanical power, generally driven by a to speed up the process. The circular motion of the wheel was changed to back-and-forth motion of the saw blade by a pitman thus introducing a term used in many mechanical applications. A pitman is similar to a used in reverse.

A crankshaft converts back-and-forth motion to circular motion. Generally only the saw was powered and the logs had to be loaded and moved by hand. An early improvement was the development of a movable carriage, also water powered, to steadily advance the log through the saw blade. Schooner (prototype) (17th century) [ ] A is a type of with sails on two or more, the foremast being no taller than the rear mast(s). Such vessels were first used by the in the 16th or 17th century (but may not have been called that at the time).

Schooners first evolved from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast and estuaries of the in the late 17th century. Most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants and Dutch nobility. Following arrival of the Dutch-born prince on the British throne, the British built a with a schooner rig in 1695, HMS Royal Transport. This vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner. Royal Transport was quickly noted for its speed and ease of handling and mercantile vessels soon adopted the rig in Europe and in European colonies in North America. Schooners were immediately popular with colonial traders and fishermen in North America with the first documented reference to a schooner in America appearing in port records in 1716. North American shipbuilders quickly developed a variety of schooner forms for trading, fishing and privateering.

According to the language scholar, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the later adoption of the spelling ('schoener'). Another study suggests that a Dutch expression praising ornate schooner yachts in the 17th century, 'een schoone Schip', may have led to the term 'schooner' being used by English speakers to describe the early versions of the schooner rig as it evolved in England and America. Land yacht (1600) [ ].

• • • Protestantism is the of with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all. It originated with the, a movement against what its followers considered to be in the. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of and, but disagree among themselves regarding the of in the.

They emphasize the, ( sola fide) rather than by, and the highest authority of the alone (rather than with ) in faith and ( ). The ' summarize basic theological differences in to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in in 1517 when published his as a reaction against abuses in the sale of by the, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers. However, the term derives from the from German Lutheran in 1529 against an of the condemning Martin Luther as. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform of the Roman Catholic Church — notably by,, and — only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting, movement. In the, spread from into,,,,,, and. (or Calvinist) denominations spread in Germany,,,, and by such as,, and.

The political separation of the from the under sparked in and into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants developed, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, and many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided and than either the Roman Catholic Church, the,. Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants spearheaded the concept of an rather than a body of clergy or focused on institutional figures. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families:,,,,,, and.,,, independent and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity.

Proponents of the consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy (both Eastern and Oriental). The Bible translated into by Martin Luther.

The supreme authority of is a fundamental principle of Protestantism. Various experts on the subject tried to determine what makes a Christian denomination a part of Protestantism. A common consensus approved by most of them is that if a Christian denomination is to be considered Protestant, it must acknowledge the following three fundamental principles of Protestantism. Scripture alone The belief, emphasized by Luther, in the Bible as the for the church. The early churches of the Reformation believed in a critical, yet serious, reading of scripture and holding the Bible as a source of authority higher than that of. The many abuses that had occurred in the Western Church before the Protestant Reformation led the Reformers to reject much of its tradition, though some would maintain tradition has been maintained and reorganized in the liturgy and in the confessions of the Protestant churches of the Reformation. In the early 20th century, a less critical reading of the Bible developed in the United States, leading to a 'fundamentalist' reading of Scripture.

Christian fundamentalists read the Bible as the 'inerrant, infallible' Word of God, as do the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches, but interpret it in a literalist fashion without using the historical critical method. 'Biblical Christianity' focused on a deep study of the Bible is characteristic of most Protestants as opposed to 'Church Christianity,' focused on performing rituals and good works, represented by Catholic and Orthodox traditions. However Quakers and Pentecostalists, emphasize the Holy Spirit and personal closeness to God.. Justification by faith alone The belief that believers are, or pardoned for sin, solely on condition of faith in rather than a combination of faith and. For Protestants, good works are a necessary consequence rather than cause of justification.

Universal priesthood of believers The universal implies the right and duty of the Christian laity not only to read the Bible in the, but also to take part in the government and all the public affairs of the Church. It is opposed to the hierarchical system which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people.

• • • The Five solae are five phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the and summarize the reformers' basic differences in theological beliefs in opposition to the teaching of the of the day. The Latin word sola means 'alone', 'only', or 'single'. The use of the phrases as summaries of teaching emerged over time during the Reformation, based on the overarching principle of (by scripture alone). This idea contains the four main doctrines on the Bible: that its teaching is needed for salvation (necessity); that all the doctrine necessary for salvation comes from the Bible alone (sufficiency); that everything taught in the Bible is correct (inerrancy); and that, by the Holy Spirit overcoming sin, believers may read and understand truth from the Bible itself, though understanding is difficult, so the means used to guide individual believers to the true teaching is often mutual discussion within the church (clarity). The necessity and inerrancy were well-established ideas, garnering little criticism, though they later came under debate from outside during the Enlightenment. The most contentious idea at the time though was the notion that anyone could simply pick up the Bible and learn enough to gain salvation. Though the reformers were concerned with ecclesiology (the doctrine of how the church as a body works), they had a different understanding of the process in which truths in scripture were applied to life of believers, compared to the Catholics' idea that certain people within the church, or ideas that were old enough, had a special status in giving understanding of the text.

The second main principle, (by faith alone), states that faith in Christ is sufficient alone for eternal salvation. Though argued from scripture, and hence logically consequent to sola scriptura, this is the guiding principle of the work of Luther and the later reformers. Because sola scriptura placed the Bible as the only source of teaching, sola fide epitomises the main thrust of the teaching the reformers wanted to get back to, namely the direct, close, personal connection between Christ and the believer, hence the reformers' contention that their work was Christocentric. The other solas, as statements, emerged later, but the thinking they represent was also part of the early Reformation.

•: Christ alone The Protestants characterize the dogma concerning the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of works made meritorious by Christ, and the Catholic idea of a treasury of the merits of Christ and his saints, as a denial that Christ is the only mediator between and man. Catholics, on the other hand, maintained the traditional understanding of Judaism on these questions, and appealed to the universal consensus of Christian tradition. •: Grace alone Protestants perceived Roman Catholic salvation to be dependent upon the grace of God and the merits of one's own works. The reformers posited that salvation is a gift of God (i.e., God's act of free grace), dispensed by the Holy Spirit owing to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone. Consequently, they argued that a sinner is not accepted by God on account of the change wrought in the believer by God's grace, and that the believer is accepted without regard for the merit of his works, for no one deserves salvation. •: Glory to God alone All glory is due to God alone since salvation is accomplished solely through his will and action—not only the gift of the all-sufficient of on but also the gift of faith in that atonement, created in the heart of the believer by the. The reformers believed that human beings—even saints by the Catholic Church, the popes, and the ecclesiastical hierarchy—are not worthy of the glory.

Christ's presence in the Eucharist [ ]. A Lutheran depiction of the by, 1547 The Protestant movement began to diverge into several distinct branches in the mid-to-late 16th century. One of the central points of divergence was controversy over the. Early Protestants rejected the Roman Catholic of, which teaches that the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass lose their natural substance by being transformed into the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ.

They disagreed with one another concerning the presence of Christ and his body and blood in Holy Communion. • Lutherans hold that within the the consecrated elements of bread and wine are the true body and blood of Christ 'in, with, and under the form' of bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it, a doctrine that the calls the.

God earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament, forgiveness of sins, and eternal salvation. • The emphasize the, or sacramental presence, of Christ, saying that the sacrament is a means of saving grace through which only the elect believer actually partakes of Christ, but merely with the bread and wine rather than in the elements. Calvinists deny the Lutheran assertion that all communicants, both believers and unbelievers, orally receive Christ's body and blood in the elements of the but instead affirm that Christ is united to the believer through faith—toward which the supper is an outward and visible aid. This is often referred to as dynamic presence. • A Protestant holding a popular simplification of the, without concern for theological intricacies as hinted at above, may see the Lord's Supper merely as a symbol of the shared faith of the participants, a commemoration of the facts of the crucifixion, and a reminder of their standing together as the body of Christ (a view referred to somewhat derisively as memorialism). Spread of in and In the late 1130s,, an Italian became one of the first theologians to attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church. After his death, his teachings on gained currency among, and later more widely among and the, though no written word of his has survived the official condemnation.

In the early 1170s, founded the Waldensians. He advocated an interpretation of the Gospel that led to conflicts with the Roman Catholic Church.

By 1215, the Waldensians were declared heretical and subject to persecution. Despite that, the movement continues to exist to this day in Italy, as. In the 1370s, —later dubbed the 'Morning Star of Reformation'—started his activity as an English reformer. He rejected papal authority over secular power, into, and preached anticlerical and biblically-centred reforms. Beginning in the first decade of the 15th century, —a Roman Catholic priest, Czech reformist and professor—influenced by John Wycliffe's writings, founded the movement. He strongly advocated his reformist religious denomination. He was and in, in 1415 by secular authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy.

After his execution, a revolt erupted. Hussites defeated five continuous crusades proclaimed against them by the. Later on, theological disputes caused a split within the Hussite movement. Maintained that both the bread and the wine should be administered to the people during the Eucharist. Another major faction were the, who opposed the Utraquists in the during the. There were two separate parties among the Hussites: moderate and radical movements. Other smaller regional Hussite branches in included,, and Praguers.

The Hussite Wars concluded with the victory of, his Catholic allies and moderate Hussites and the defeat of the radical Hussites. After the war, both moderate and radical Hussitism was increasingly persecuted by the Catholics. Starting in 1475, an Italian Dominican friar was calling for a Christian renewal. Later on, Martin Luther himself read some of the friar's writings and praised him as a martyr and forerunner whose ideas on faith and grace anticipated Luther's own doctrine of justification by faith alone. Some of Hus' followers founded the —'Unity of the Brethren'—which was renewed under the leadership of in, in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the and the.

Today, it is usually referred to in English as the and in German as the. • • • The began as an attempt to reform the. On 31 October 1517 () allegedly nailed his (Disputation on the Power of Indulgences) on the door of the in, Germany, detailing doctrinal and practical abuses of the, especially the selling of. The theses debated and criticized many aspects of the Church and the papacy, including the practice of,, and the authority of the pope. Luther would later write works against the Catholic devotion to, the intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, good works, and the sacraments.

The was a triumph of literacy and the new invented. Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded much of Europe. Following the of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. After the expulsion of its Bishop in 1526, and the unsuccessful attempts of the reformer, Calvin was asked to use the organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the city of.

His Ordinances of 1541 involved a collaboration of Church affairs with the City council and consistory to bring morality to all areas of life. After the establishment of the Geneva academy in 1559, Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, providing refuge for Protestant exiles from all over Europe and educating them as Calvinist missionaries. The faith continued to spread after Calvin's death in 1563. Protestantism also spread from the German lands into France, where the Protestants were nicknamed.

Calvin continued to take an interest in the French religious affairs from his base in Geneva. He regularly trained pastors to lead congregations there. Despite heavy persecution, the Reformed tradition made steady progress across large sections of the nation, appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment. French Protestantism came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the conversions of nobles during the 1550s. This established the preconditions for a series of conflicts, known as the.

The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of in 1559. Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated at their most intense in the of August 1572, when the Roman Catholic party annihilated between 30,000 and 100,000 Huguenots across France. The wars only concluded when issued the, promising official toleration of the Protestant minority, but under highly restricted conditions. Roman Catholicism remained the official, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Roman Catholicism the sole legal religion once again. In response to the Edict of Fontainebleau, declared the, giving free passage to Huguenot refugees. In the late 17th century many Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies. A significant community in France remained in the region.

Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Zwingli was a scholar and preacher, who in 1518 moved to Zurich. Although the two movements agreed on many issues of theology, some unresolved differences kept them separate. A long-standing resentment between the German states and the led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism.

The German Prince saw potential in creating an alliance between Zwingli and Luther. Incredimail 2 Gold Crack. A meeting was held in his castle in 1529, now known as the, which has become infamous for its failure. The two men could not come to any agreement due to their disputation over one key doctrine. In 1534, put an end to all papal jurisdiction in, after the Pope failed to his marriage to; this opened the door to reformational ideas.

Reformers in the Church of England alternated between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing into a tradition considered a middle way ( via media) between the Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions. The English Reformation followed a particular course. The different character of the came primarily from the fact that it was driven initially by the political necessities of Henry VIII.

King Henry decided to remove the Church of England from the authority of Rome. In 1534, the Act of Supremacy recognized Henry as the only Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England. Between 1535 and 1540, under, the policy known as the was put into effect. Following a brief Roman Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary I, a loose consensus developed during the reign of. The largely formed Anglicanism into a distinctive church tradition. The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism on the one hand and Roman Catholicism on the other.

It was relatively successful until the Puritan Revolution or in the 17th century. The success of the on the Continent and the growth of a dedicated to further Protestant reform polarised the. The early Puritan movement was a movement for reform in the Church of England. The desire was for the Church of England to resemble more closely the Protestant churches of Europe, especially Geneva. The later Puritan movement, often referred to as and, eventually led to the formation of various Reformed denominations. The of 1560 decisively shaped the.

The Reformation in Scotland culminated ecclesiastically in the establishment of a church along Reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France. John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation.

The of 1560 repudiated the pope's authority by the, forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith. It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent, who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent. Some of the most important activists of the Protestant Reformation included,,,,,,,,,,,,,, and. In the course of this religious upheaval, the of 1524–25 swept through the, and principalities. After the in the and the, the confessional division of the eventually erupted in the between 1618 and 1648. It devastated much of, killing between 25% and 40% of its population. The main tenets of the, which ended the Thirty Years' War, were: • All parties would now recognise the of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism.

(the principle of ) • Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. • The treaty also effectively ended the papacy's pan-European political power. Declared the treaty 'null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times' in his bull Zelo Domus Dei. European sovereigns, Roman Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict.

• • • The Great Awakenings were periods of rapid and dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. The was an evangelical and revitalization movement that swept through Protestant Europe and, especially the in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on. It resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ. Pulling away from ritual, ceremony, sacramentalism and hierarchy, it made Christianity intensely personal to the average person by fostering a deep sense of spiritual conviction and redemption, and by encouraging introspection and a commitment to a new standard of personal morality. 1839 camp meeting during the in the U.S.

The began around 1790. It gained momentum by 1800. After 1820, membership rose rapidly among and congregations, whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the late 1840s. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism,, and, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood. It enrolled millions of new members in existing denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. The refers to a hypothetical historical period that was marked by religious activism in and spans the late 1850s to the early 20th century.

It affected Protestant denominations and had a strong element of social activism. It gathered strength from the belief that the of Christ would occur after mankind had reformed the entire earth. It was affiliated with the Movement, which applied Christianity to social issues and gained its force from the Awakening, as did the worldwide missionary movement. New groupings emerged, such as the,, and movements. The was a Christian religious awakening that some scholars—most notably, —say took place in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s, while others look at the era following.

The terminology is controversial. Thus, the idea of a Fourth Great Awakening itself has not been generally accepted. In 1814, swept through Calvinist regions in Switzerland and France. In 1904, a had tremendous impact on the local population. A part of British modernization, it drew many people to churches, especially Methodist and Baptist ones.

A noteworthy development in 20th-century Protestant Christianity was the rise of the modern. Sprung from Methodist and roots, it arose out of meetings at an urban mission on in Los Angeles.

From there it spread around the world, carried by those who experienced what they believed to be miraculous moves of God there. These Pentecost-like manifestations have steadily been in evidence throughout the history, such as seen in the two Great Awakenings. Pentecostalism, which in turn birthed the within already established denominations, continues to be an important force in. In the United States and elsewhere in the world, there has been a marked rise in the of Protestant denominations, especially those that are more exclusively evangelical, and a corresponding decline in the. In the post– era, was on the rise, and a considerable number of seminaries held and taught from a liberal perspective as well. In the post– era, the trend began to swing back towards the conservative camp in America's seminaries and church structures. In Europe, there has been a general move away from religious observance and belief in Christian teachings and a move towards.

The is largely responsible for the spread of secularism. Several scholars have argued for a link between the rise of secularism and Protestantism, attributing it to the wide-ranging freedom in the Protestant countries. In North America, South America and Australia Christian religious observance is much higher than in Europe. United States remains particularly religious in comparison to other. South America, historically Roman Catholic, has experienced a large and infusion in the 20th and 21st centuries. Radical Reformation [ ].

Dissatisfaction with the outcome of a disputation in 1525 prompted to part ways with. Unlike mainstream, and Zwinglian movements, the, which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the 'Church visible' as distinct from the 'Church invisible'.

It was a rational extension of the state-approved Protestant dissent, which took the value of independence from constituted authority a step further, arguing the same for the civic realm. The Radical Reformation was non-mainstream, though in parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority would sympathize with the Radical Reformation despite the intense persecution it faced from both Roman Catholics and Magisterial Protestants. The early believed that their reformation must purify not only theology but also the actual lives of Christians, especially their political and social relationships. Therefore, the church should not be supported by the state, neither by tithes and taxes, nor by the use of the sword; was a matter of individual conviction, which could not be forced on anyone, but rather required a personal decision for it.

Protestant ecclesial leaders such as and preached the invalidity of infant baptism, advocating baptism as following conversion () instead. This was not a doctrine new to the reformers, but was taught by earlier groups, such as the in 1147. Though most of the Radical Reformers were Anabaptist, some did not identify themselves with the mainstream Anabaptist tradition. Was involved in the. Disagreed theologically with Huldrych Zwingli and Martin Luther, teaching nonviolence and refusing to baptize infants while not rebaptizing adult believers.

And were influenced by and. In the view of many associated with the Radical Reformation, the had not gone far enough. Radical Reformer,, for example, referred to the Lutheran theologians at as the 'new papists'. Since the term 'magister' also means 'teacher', the Magisterial Reformation is also characterized by an emphasis on the authority of a teacher.

This is made evident in the prominence of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli as leaders of the reform movements in their respective areas of ministry. Because of their authority, they were often criticized by Radical Reformers as being too much like the Roman Popes. A more political side of the Radical Reformation can be seen in the thought and practice of, although typically Anabaptism has been associated with pacifism.

Anabaptism in shape of its various diversification such as the, and came out of the Radical Reformation. Later in history,,, and the would emerge in Anabaptist circles. Denominations [ ]. Protestants refer to specific groupings of congregations or churches that share in common foundational doctrines and the name of their groups as.

The term denomination (national body) is to be distinguished from branch (denominational family; tradition), communion (international body) and congregation (church). An example (this is no universal way to classify Protestant churches, as these may sometimes vary broadly in their structures) to show the difference: Branch/denominational family/tradition: Communion/international body: Denomination/national body: Congregation/church: Protestants reject the Roman Catholic Church's doctrine that it is the, believing in the invisible church, which consists of all who profess faith in Jesus Christ. Some Protestant denominations are less accepting of other denominations, and the basic orthodoxy of some is questioned by most of the others. Individual denominations also have formed over very subtle theological differences. Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. Because the five solas are the main tenets of the Protestant faith, groups and organizations are also considered Protestant.

Various have attempted cooperation or reorganization of the various divided Protestant denominations, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions, as there is no overarching authority to which any of the churches owe allegiance, which can authoritatively define the faith. Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith while differing in many secondary doctrines, although what is major and what is secondary is a matter of idiosyncratic belief. Several countries have their, linking the ecclesiastical structure with the state. Jurisdictions where a Protestant denomination has been established as a state religion include several; Denmark (including Greenland), ( being independent since 2007), Iceland and Norway have established churches. Has in the world, while —.

The is the officially established religious institution in England, and also the of the worldwide. In 1869, Finland was the first Nordic country to by introducing the Church Act. Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a in the or other laws passed by the. In 2000, Sweden was the second Nordic country to do so. United and uniting churches [ ]. See also: United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.

Historically, unions of Protestant churches were enforced by the state, usually in order to have a stricter control over the religious sphere of its people, but also other organizational reasons. As modern progresses, unions between various Protestant traditions are becoming more and more common, resulting in a growing number of united and uniting churches. Some of the recent major examples are the (2013) and the (2004).

As mainline Protestantism shrinks in and due to the rise of, and denominations merge, often creating large nationwide denominations. The phenomenon is much less common among, and churches as new ones arise and plenty of them remain independent of each other.

Perhaps the oldest official united church is found in, where the is a federation of, United () and, a union dating back to 1817. The first of the series of unions was at a synod in to form the in August 1817, commemorated in naming the church of Idstein one hundred years later. Around the world, each united or uniting church comprises a different mix of predecessor Protestant denominations. Trends are visible, however, as most united and uniting churches have one or more predecessors with heritage in the and many are members of the. Major branches [ ] Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the Reformation, today regarded as branches.

Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning individual denominations. Due to the earlier stated multitude of, this section discusses only the largest denominational families, or branches, widely considered to be a part of Protestantism. These are, in alphabetical order:,,,,, and.

A small but historically significant branch is also discussed. The chart below shows the mutual relations and historical origins of the main Protestant denominational families, or their parts. Main article: Adventism began in the 19th century in the context of the revival in the. The name refers to belief in the imminent. Started the Adventist movement in the 1830s. His followers became known as.

Although the Adventist churches hold much in common, their differ on whether the is or consciousness, whether the ultimate punishment of the wicked is or eternal torment, the nature of immortality, whether or not the wicked are resurrected after the millennium, and whether the sanctuary of refers to the one in or one on earth. The movement has encouraged the examination of the whole, leading Seventh-day Adventists and some smaller Adventist groups to observe the.

The has compiled that church's core beliefs in (1980 and 2005), which use Biblical references as justification. In 2010, Adventism claimed some 22 million believers scattered in various independent churches. The largest church within the movement—the —has more than 18 million members.

Main article: Anabaptism traces its origins to the. Anabaptists believe in delaying until the candidate confesses his or her faith. Although some consider this movement to be an offshoot of Protestantism, others see it as a distinct one. The,, and are direct descendants of the movement.,, and the are considered later developments among the Anabaptists. The name Anabaptist, meaning 'one who baptizes again', was given them by their persecutors in reference to the practice of re-baptizing converts who already had been baptized as infants. Anabaptists required that baptismal candidates be able to make their own confessions of faith and so rejected. The early members of this movement did not accept the name Anabaptist, claiming that since infant baptism was unscriptural and null and void, the baptizing of believers was not a re-baptism but in fact their first real baptism.

As a result of their views on the nature of baptism and other issues, Anabaptists were heavily persecuted during the 16th century and into the 17th by both and. While most Anabaptists adhered to a, which precluded taking oaths, participating in military actions, and participating in civil government, some who practiced re-baptism felt otherwise.

They were thus technically Anabaptists, even though conservative,, and and some historians tend to consider them as outside of true Anabaptism. Anabaptist reformers of the Radical Reformation are divided into Radical and the so-called Second Front. Some important Radical Reformation theologians were,,,,. Second Front Reformers included,, and. Main article: Anglicanism comprises the and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church.

There is no single 'Anglican Church' with universal juridical authority, since each national or regional church has full. As the name suggests, the communion is an association of churches in with the. The great majority of Anglicans are members of churches which are part of the international, which has 85 million adherents. The Church of England declared its independence from the Catholic Church at the time of the. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Reformed tradition. These reforms were understood by one of those most responsible for them, the then Archbishop of Canterbury,, as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. By the end of the century, the retention in Anglicanism of many traditional liturgical forms and of the episcopate was already seen as unacceptable by those promoting the most developed Protestant principles.

Unique to Anglicanism is the, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries. While it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Book of Common Prayer is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind the Anglican Communion together. Main article: Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (, as opposed to ), and that it must be done by complete (as opposed to or ).

Other of Baptist churches include (liberty), through, as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, and. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ widely from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, and their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest church labeled Baptist back to 1609 in, with as its pastor.

In accordance with his reading of the, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to. In 1638, established the. In the mid-18th century, the increased Baptist growth in both New England and the South. The in the South in the early 19th century increased church membership, as did the preachers' lessening of support for and of, which had been part of the 18th-century teachings. Baptist missionaries have spread their church to every continent.

The reports more than 41 million members in more than 150,000 congregations. In 2002, there were over 100 million Baptists and Baptistic group members worldwide and over 33 million in North America. The largest Baptist association is the, with the membership of associated churches totaling more than 15 million. Main article: Calvinism, also called the Reformed tradition, was advanced by several theologians such as,,, and Huldrych Zwingli, but this branch of Christianity bears the name of the French reformer John Calvin because of his prominent influence on it and because of his role in the confessional and ecclesiastical debates throughout the 16th century. Today, this term also refers to the doctrines and practices of the of which Calvin was an early leader. Less commonly, it can refer to the individual teaching of Calvin himself. The particulars of Calvinist theology may be stated in a number of ways.

Perhaps the best known summary is contained in the, though these points identify the Calvinist view on rather than summarizing the system as a whole. Broadly speaking, Calvinism stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things—in salvation but also in all of life. This concept is seen clearly in the doctrines of and. The biggest Reformed association is the with more than 80 million members in 211 member denominations around the world.

There are more conservative Reformed federations like the and the, as well as. Main article: Lutheranism identifies with the of Martin Luther—a friar, reformer, and theologian. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification 'by through on the basis of ', the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith, denying the belief of the Catholic Church defined at the concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first four of the undivided Christian Church. Unlike the Reformed tradition, Lutherans retain many of the practices and teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in, the purpose of, the divine, the concept of, and. Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism.

With approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant confession after historically and. The, the largest global communion of Lutheran churches represents over 72 million people. Additionally, there are also many smaller bodies such as the and the, as well as. Main article: Methodism identifies principally with the of —an priest and evangelist.

This evangelical movement originated as a within the 18th-century and became a separate Church following Wesley's death. Because of vigorous missionary activity, the movement spread throughout the, the United States, and beyond, today claiming approximately 80 million adherents worldwide. Originally it appealed especially to labourers and slaves., most Methodists are, emphasizing that Christ accomplished salvation for every human being, and that humans must exercise an act of the will to receive it (as opposed to the traditional Calvinist doctrine of ). Methodism is traditionally in liturgy, although this varies greatly between individual congregations; the Wesleys themselves greatly valued the Anglican liturgy and tradition.

Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition; John Wesley's brother,, was instrumental in writing much of the of the Methodist Church, and many other eminent hymn writers come from the Methodist tradition. Main article: Pentecostalism is a movement that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of through the. The term Pentecostal is derived from, the name for the Jewish. For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the upon the followers of, as described in the of the. This branch of Protestantism is distinguished by belief in the baptism with the Holy Spirit as an experience separate from that enables a Christian to live a Holy Spirit–filled and empowered life. This empowerment includes the use of such as and —two other defining characteristics of Pentecostalism.

Because of their commitment to biblical authority, spiritual gifts, and the miraculous, Pentecostals tend to see their movement as reflecting the same kind of spiritual power and teachings that were found in the of the. For this reason, some Pentecostals also use the term Apostolic or to describe their movement. Pentecostalism eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations, including large groups such as the Assemblies of God and the Church of God in Christ, both in the United States and elsewhere.

There are over 279 million Pentecostals worldwide, and the movement is growing in many parts of the world, especially the. Since the 1960s, Pentecostalism has increasingly gained acceptance from other Christian traditions, and Pentecostal beliefs concerning Spirit baptism and spiritual gifts have been embraced by non-Pentecostal Christians in Protestant and churches through the. Together, numbers over 500 million adherents.

Main article: There are many other Protestant denominations that do not fit neatly into the mentioned branches, and are far smaller in membership. Some groups of individuals who hold basic Protestant tenets identify themselves simply as 'Christians' or ' Christians'. They typically distance themselves from the and/or creedalism of other Christian communities by calling themselves ' or '. Often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations.

Follows the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best-known representative of the and one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened national awareness. Among present-day Christians, Hussite traditions are represented in the,, and the refounded churches. The are a, low church, evangelical, whose history can be traced to, Ireland, in the late 1820s, originating from. Among other beliefs, the group emphasizes sola scriptura. Brethren generally see themselves not as a denomination, but as a network, or even as a collection of overlapping networks, of like-minded independent churches.

Although the group refused for many years to take any denominational name to itself—a stance that some of them still maintain—the title The Brethren, is one that many of their number are comfortable with in that the Bible designates all believers as brethren. The Holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from 19th-century Methodism, and a number of evangelical denominations, parachurch organizations, and movements which emphasized those beliefs as a central doctrine. There are an estimated 12 million adherents in Holiness movement churches. And are notable examples., or Friends, are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious Society of Friends. The central unifying doctrine of these movements is the. Many Friends view themselves as members of a Christian denomination. They include those with,,, and traditional understandings of.

Unlike many other groups that emerged within Christianity, the Religious Society of Friends has actively tried to avoid and hierarchical structures. Is sometimes considered Protestant due to its origins in the Reformation and strong cooperation with other Protestants since the 16th century. It is excluded due to its nature. Unitarians can be regarded as Nontrinitarian Protestants, or simply Nontrinitarians. Unitarianism has been popular in the within today's, England, and the United States. It originated almost simultaneously in Transylvania and the.

A night shelter of in Geneva, Switzerland. Interdenominational movements [ ] There are also Christian movements which cross denominational lines and even branches, and cannot be classified on the same level previously mentioned forms. Is a prominent example. Some of those movements are active exclusively within Protestantism, some are Christian-wide.

Transdenominational movements are sometimes capable of affecting parts of the, such as does it the, which aims to incorporate beliefs and practices similar to into the various branches of Christianity. Are sometimes regarded as a subgroup of the Charismatic Movement. Both are put under a common label of (so-called Renewalists), along with Pentecostals.

And various often adopt, or are akin to one of these movements. Are usually influenced by interdenominational movements. Globally, these large congregations are a significant development in Protestant Christianity. In the United States, the phenomenon has more than quadrupled in the past two decades. It has since spread worldwide. The chart below shows the mutual relations and historical origins of the main interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism.

Main article: Evangelicalism, or Evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement which maintains that the essence of consists in the doctrine of by through in 's. Evangelicals are who believe in the centrality of the conversion or in receiving salvation, believe in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity and have a strong commitment to evangelism or sharing the Christian message. It gained great momentum in the 18th and 19th centuries with the emergence of and the in Britain and North America.

The origins of Evangelicalism are usually traced back to the English movement,, the,, and. Among leaders and major figures of the Evangelical Protestant movement were,,,,, and. There are an estimated 285,480,000 Evangelicals, corresponding to 13.1% of the and 4.1% of the. The Americas, Africa and Asia are home to the majority of Evangelicals. The United States has the largest concentration of Evangelicals. Evangelicalism is gaining popularity both in and outside the English-speaking world, especially in Latin America and the.

Main article: The Charismatic movement is the international trend of historically mainstream congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to. Fundamental to the movement is the use of. Among Protestants, the movement began around 1960. In America, Episcopalian is sometimes cited as one of the charismatic movement's seminal influence. In the,,, and others were in the vanguard of similar developments. The conference in New Zealand, 1964 was attended by several Anglicans, including the Rev. Ray Muller, who went on to invite Bennett to New Zealand in 1966, and played a leading role in developing and promoting the Life in the Spirit seminars.

Other Charismatic movement leaders in New Zealand include. Larry Christenson, a Lutheran theologian based in, did much in the 1960s and 1970s to interpret the charismatic movement for Lutherans. A very large annual conference regarding that matter was held in. Charismatic Lutheran congregations in Minnesota became especially large and influential; especially 'Hosanna!' In Lakeville, and North Heights in St. The next generation of Lutheran charismatics cluster around the.

There is considerable charismatic activity among young Lutheran leaders in California centered around an annual gathering at Robinwood Church in Huntington Beach. 's Touched by the Spirit published in 1974, played a major role of the Lutheran understanding to the charismatic movement. In Congregational and Presbyterian churches which profess a traditionally or there are differing views regarding present-day or of the gifts ( charismata) of the Spirit. Generally, however, Reformed charismatics distance themselves from renewal movements with tendencies which could be perceived as overemotional, such as,, and. Prominent Reformed charismatic denominations are the and the Churches in the US, in Great Britain there is the churches and movement, which leading figure is.

A minority of today are charismatic. They are strongly associated with those holding more. In the early decades of the church charismatic or ecstatic phenomena were commonplace. Neo-charismatic churches [ ]. Main article: Neo-charismatic churches are a category of in the Christian movement. Neo-charismatics include the, but are broader. Now more numerous than Pentecostals (first wave) and charismatics (second wave) combined, owing to the remarkable growth of and independent charismatic groups.

Neo-charismatics believe in and stress the post-Biblical availability of, including, healing, and prophecy. They practice laying on of hands and seek the 'infilling' of the. However, a specific experience of may not be requisite for experiencing such gifts. No single form, governmental structure, or style of church service characterizes all neo-charismatic services and churches.

Some nineteen thousand denominations, with approximately 295 million individual adherents, are identified as neo-charismatic. Neo-charismatic tenets and practices are found in many independent, nondenominational or post-denominational congregations, with strength of numbers centered in the, among the, and in Latin American churches. Other Protestant developments [ ] A plenty of other movements and thoughts to be distinguished from the widespread transdenominational ones and branches appeared within Protestant Christianity. Some of them are also in evidence today. Others appeared during the centuries following the Reformation and disappeared gradually with the time, such as much of. Some inspired the current transdenominational ones, such as which has its foundation in the. Arminianism [ ].

Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch Reformed theologian, whose views influenced parts of Protestantism. A small Remonstrant community remains in the Netherlands. Arminianism is based on ideas of the theologian (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as.

His teachings held to the of the Reformation, but they were distinct from particular teachings of,,, and other. Jacobus Arminius was a student of at the Theological University of Geneva. Arminianism is known to some as a diversification of.

However, to others, Arminianism is a reclamation of early Church theological consensus. Dutch Arminianism was originally articulated in the Remonstrance (1610), a theological statement signed by 45 ministers and submitted to the. Many Christian denominations have been influenced by Arminian views on the will of man being freed by grace prior to regeneration, notably the in the 16th century, the in the 18th century and the in the 19th century. The original beliefs of Jacobus Arminius himself are commonly defined as Arminianism, but more broadly, the term may embrace the teachings of,, and others as well. And are the two main schools of thought. Wesleyan Arminianism is often identical with Methodism. The two systems of Calvinism and Arminianism share both history and many doctrines, and the.

However, because of their differences over the doctrines of divine and election, many people view these schools of thought as opposed to each other. In short, the difference can be seen ultimately by whether God allows His desire to save all to be resisted by an individual's will (in the Arminian doctrine) or if God's grace is irresistible and limited to only some (in Calvinism). Some Calvinists assert that the Arminian perspective presents a synergistic system of Salvation and therefore is not only by grace, while Arminians firmly reject this conclusion. Many consider the theological differences to be crucial differences in doctrine, while others find them to be relatively minor. Main articles: and Pietism was an influential movement within that combined the 17th century Lutheran principles with the emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous life. It began in the late 17th century, reached its zenith in the mid-18th century, and declined through the 19th century, and had almost vanished in America by the end of the 20th century. While declining as an identifiable Lutheran group, some of its theological tenets influenced Protestantism generally, inspiring the priest to begin the movement and to begin the movement among.

Though Pietism shares an emphasis on personal behavior with the movement, and the two are often confused, there are important differences, particularly in the concept of the role of religion in government. Main articles:,,,,,, and The Puritans were a group of English Protestants in the and, which sought to purify the of what they considered to be practices, maintaining that the church was only partially reformed. Puritanism in this sense was founded by some of the returning shortly after the accession of in 1558, as an activist movement within the.

Puritans were blocked from changing the established church from within, and were severely restricted in England by laws controlling the practice of religion. Their beliefs, however, were transported by the emigration of congregations to the Netherlands (and later to New England), and by evangelical clergy to Ireland (and later into Wales), and were spread into lay society and parts of the educational system, particularly certain colleges of the. They took on distinctive beliefs about clerical dress and in opposition to the system, particularly after the 1619 conclusions of the they were resisted by the English bishops. They largely adopted in the 17th century, and were influenced. They formed, and identified with various religious groups advocating greater purity of and, as well as personal and group. Puritans adopted a, but they also took note of radical criticisms of Zwingli in Zurich and Calvin in Geneva.

In church polity, some advocated for separation from all other Christians, in favor of autonomous. These separatist and strands of Puritanism became prominent in the 1640s, when the supporters of a in the were unable to forge a new English national church. Nonconforming Protestants along with the Protestant refugees from continental Europe were the primary founders of the United States of America. Often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century A non-fundamentalist rejection of liberal Christianity, associated primarily with and, neo-orthodoxy sought to counter-act the tendency of liberal theology to make theological accommodations to modern scientific perspectives. Sometimes called 'Crisis theology', according to the influence of philosophical on some important segments of the movement; also, somewhat confusingly, sometimes called neo-evangelicalism. Paleo-orthodoxy is a movement similar in some respects to neo-evangelicalism but emphasizing the ancient Christian consensus of the undivided church of the first millennium AD, including in particular the early creeds and church councils as a means of properly understanding the scriptures. This movement is cross-denominational and the most notable exponent in the movement is theologian.

Christian fundamentalism [ ]. Main article: In reaction to liberal Bible critique, arose in the 20th century, primarily in the United States, among those denominations most affected by Evangelicalism. Fundamentalist theology tends to stress and.

Toward the end of the 20th century, some have tended to confuse evangelicalism and fundamentalism; however, the labels represent very distinct differences of approach that both groups are diligent to maintain, although because of fundamentalism's dramatically smaller size it often gets classified simply as an ultra-conservative branch of evangelicalism. Modernism and liberalism [ ]. Although the Reformation was a religious movement, it also had a strong impact on all other aspects of life: marriage and family, education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy, and the arts. Protestant churches reject the idea of a celibate priesthood and thus allow their clergy to marry. Many of their families contributed to the development of intellectual elites in their countries. Since about 1950, women have entered the ministry, and some have assumed leading positions (e.g. ), in most Protestant churches.

As the Reformers wanted all members of the church to be able to read the Bible, education on all levels got a strong boost. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the literacy rate in England was about 60 per cent, in Scotland 65 per cent, and in Sweden eight of ten men and women were able to read and to write. Colleges and universities were founded. For example, the who established in 1628 founded only eight years later. About a dozen other colleges followed in the 18th century, including (1701). Also became a centre of learning.

Members of denominations have played, including politics, business, science, the arts, and education. They founded most of the country's leading institutes of higher education. Thought and work ethic [ ]. See also: The Protestant concept of God and man allows believers to use all their God-given faculties, including the power of reason. That means that they are allowed to explore God's creation and, according to, make use of it in a responsible and sustainable way. Thus a cultural climate was created that greatly enhanced the development of the and the.

Another consequence of the Protestant understanding of man is that the believers, in gratitude for their election and redemption in Christ, are to follow God's commandments. Industry, frugality, calling, discipline, and a strong sense of responsibility are at the heart of their moral code. In particular, Calvin rejected luxury. Therefore, craftsmen, industrialists, and other businessmen were able to reinvest the greater part of their profits in the most efficient machinery and the most modern production methods that were based on progress in the sciences and technology. As a result, productivity grew, which led to increased profits and enabled employers to pay higher wages. In this way, the economy, the sciences, and technology reinforced each other. The chance to participate in the economic success of technological inventions was a strong incentive to both inventors and investors.

The was an important force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated that influenced the development of and the. This idea is also known as the 'Protestant ethic thesis.' However, eminent historian (d. 1985), a leader of the important wrote: 'all historians have opposed this tenuous theory [the Protestant Ethic], although they have not managed to be rid of it once and for all.

Yet it is clearly false. The northern countries took over the place that earlier had been so long and brilliantly been occupied by the old capitalist centers of the Mediterranean. They invented nothing, either in technology or business management.' Social scientist moreover comments that 'during their critical period of economic development, these northern centers of capitalism were Catholic, not Protestant — the Reformation still lay well into the future,' while British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper (d. 2003) said, 'The idea that large-scale industrial capitalism was ideologically impossible before the Reformation is exploded by the simple fact that it existed.' In a of the latest wave of data, () found that Protestantism emerges to be very close to combining religion and the traditions of. The Global Value Development Index, calculated by Tausch, relies on the World Values Survey dimensions such as trust in the state of law, no support for shadow economy, postmaterial activism, support for democracy, a non-acceptance of violence, xenophobia and racism, trust in transnational capital and Universities, confidence in the market economy, supporting gender justice, and engaging in environmental activism, etc.

And, as well as other, tend to be considerably wealthier and better educated (having and degrees per capita) than most other religious groups in, and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American, and, especially the. Numbers of the most as the and the,,,,,, the and Harrimans are families. Established by the Protestantism has had an important influence on science. According to the, there was a positive between the rise of English and German on the one hand and early on the other. The Merton Thesis has two separate parts: Firstly, it presents a theory that science changes due to an accumulation of observations and improvement in experimental technique and; secondly, it puts forward the argument that the popularity of science in 17th-century England and the religious of the (English scientists of that time were predominantly Puritans or other Protestants) can be explained by a between Protestantism and the scientific values.

Merton focused on English Puritanism and German Pietism as having been responsible for the development of the of the 17th and 18th centuries. He explained that the connection between and interest in science was the result of a significant synergy between the Protestant values and those of modern science. Protestant values encouraged scientific research by allowing science to identify God's influence on the world—his creation—and thus providing a religious justification for scientific research.

According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States by, a review of American Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American laureates identified a Protestant background. Overall, 84.2% of all the Nobel Prizes awarded to Americans in, 60% in, and 58.6% in between 1901 and 1972 were won by Protestants. According to 100 Years of Nobel Prize (2005), a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000, 65.4% of Laureates, in its various forms as their religious preference (423 prizes).

While 32% have identified with Protestantism in its various forms (208 prizes), although Protestant comprise 11.6% to 13% of the world's population. Government [ ]. Church flags, as used by German Protestants. In the Middle Ages, the Church and the worldly authorities were closely related. Martin Luther separated the religious and the worldly realms in principle (). The believers were obliged to use reason to govern the worldly sphere in an orderly and peaceful way. Luther's doctrine of the upgraded the role of laymen in the church considerably.

The members of a congregation had the right to elect a minister and, if necessary, to vote for his dismissal (Treatise On the right and authority of a Christian assembly or congregation to judge all doctrines and to call, install and dismiss teachers, as testified in Scripture; 1523). Calvin strengthened this basically democratic approach by including elected laymen (, ) in his representative church government.

The added regional and a national synod, whose members were elected by the congregations, to Calvin's system of church self-government. This system was taken over by the other reformed churches. Politically, Calvin favoured a mixture of aristocracy and democracy. He appreciated the advantages of: 'It is an invaluable gift, if God allows a people to freely elect its own authorities and overlords.' Calvin also thought that earthly rulers lose their divine right and must be put down when they rise up against God. To further protect the rights of ordinary people, Calvin suggested separating political powers in a system of checks and balances ().

Thus he and his followers resisted political and paved the way for the rise of modern democracy. Besides England, the Netherlands were, under Calvinist leadership, the freest country in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It granted asylum to philosophers like and.

Was able to teach his natural-law theory and a relatively liberal interpretation of the Bible. Consistent with Calvin's political ideas, Protestants created both the English and the American democracies. In seventeenth-century England, the most important persons and events in this process were the,,,, the, the, and the. Later, the British took their democratic ideals to their colonies, e.g. Australia, New Zealand, and India.

In North America, (; 1620) and (1628) practised democratic self-rule and. These were convinced that the democratic form of government was the will of God. Rights and liberty [ ]. Protestant and philosopher argued for individual conscience, free from state control. Protestants also took the initiative in advocating for. Freedom of conscience had high priority on the theological, philosophical, and political agendas since Luther refused to recant his beliefs before the Diet of the at Worms (1521).

In his view, faith was a free work of the Holy Spirit and could, therefore, not be forced on a person. The persecuted Anabaptists and Huguenots demanded freedom of conscience, and they practised. In the early seventeenth century, Baptists like and published tracts in defense of religious freedom.

Their thinking influenced and 's stance on tolerance. Under the leadership of Baptist, Congregationalist, and Quaker, respectively,,, and combined democratic constitutions with freedom of religion. These colonies became safe havens for persecuted religious minorities, including. The, the, and the American with its fundamental human rights made this tradition permanent by giving it a legal and political framework. The great majority of American Protestants, both clergy and laity, strongly supported the independence movement. All major Protestant churches were represented in the First and Second Continental Congresses.

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the American democracy became a model for numerous other countries and regions throughout the world (e.g., Latin America, Japan, and Germany). The strongest link between the American and was, an ardent supporter of the American constitutional principles. The French was mainly based on Lafayette's draft of this document. The and also echo the American constitutional tradition. Democracy, social-contract theory, separation of powers, religious freedom, separation of church and state – these achievements of the Reformation and early Protestantism were elaborated on and popularized by thinkers. Some of the philosophers of the English, Scottish, German, and Swiss Enlightenment –,,,,,,, and – had Protestant backgrounds.

For example, John Locke, whose political thought was based on 'a set of Protestant Christian assumptions', derived the equality of all humans, including the equality of the genders ('Adam and Eve'), from Genesis 1, 26–28. As all persons were created equally free, all governments needed 'the consent of the governed.' These Lockean ideas were fundamental to the United States Declaration of Independence, which also deduced human rights from the biblical belief in creation: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.' Also, other human rights were advocated for by some Protestants.

For example, was abolished in in 1740, in Britain in 1834 and in the United States in 1865 (,, – against Southern Protestants). And were among the first thinkers who made significant contributions to. The, an important part of humanitarian, was largely the work of, a reformed. He also founded the.

Social teaching [ ]. The founded by Congregationalist and aimed at empowering young people Protestants have founded hospitals, homes for disabled or elderly people, educational institutions, organizations that give aid to developing countries, and other social welfare agencies.

In the nineteenth century, throughout the Anglo-American world, numerous dedicated members of all Protestant denominations were active in social reform movements such as the abolition of slavery, prison reforms, and. As an answer to the 'social question' of the nineteenth century, Germany under Chancellor introduced insurance programs that led the way to the (,,, ). To Bismarck this was 'practical Christianity'. These programs, too, were copied by many other nations, particularly in the Western world.

Arts [ ] The arts have been strongly inspired by Protestant beliefs. Martin Luther,,,,,, and many other authors and composers created well-known church hymns. Musicians like,,,,, and composed great works of music. Prominent painters with Protestant background were, for example,,,,,, and. World literature was enriched by the works of,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, and many others. Of French Protestants, 1572. The view of the is that Protestant denominations cannot be considered churches but rather that they are ecclesial communities or specific faith-believing communities because their ordinances and doctrines are not historically the same as the Catholic sacraments and dogmas, and the Protestant communities have no sacramental ministerial priesthood and therefore lack true.

According to Bishop the shares the same view on the subject. Contrary to how the Protestant Reformers were often characterized, the concept of a catholic or universal Church was not brushed aside during the Protestant Reformation.

On the contrary, the visible unity of the catholic or universal church was seen by the Protestant reformers as an important and essential doctrine of the Reformation. The Magisterial reformers, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, believed that they were reforming the Roman Catholic Church, which they viewed as having become corrupted. Each of them took very seriously the charges of schism and innovation, denying these charges and maintaining that it was the Roman Catholic Church that had left them. In order to justify their departure from the Roman Catholic Church, Protestants often posited a new argument, saying that there was no real visible Church with divine authority, only a spiritual, invisible, and hidden church—this notion began in the early days of the Protestant Reformation. Wherever the Magisterial Reformation, which received support from the ruling authorities, took place, the result was a reformed national Protestant church envisioned to be a part of the whole invisible church, but disagreeing, in certain important points of doctrine and doctrine-linked practice, with what had until then been considered the normative reference point on such matters, namely the Papacy and central authority of the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformed churches thus believed in some form of Catholicity, founded on their doctrines of the five solas and a visible organization based on the 14th and 15th century, rejecting the and in favor of, but rejecting the latest ecumenical council, the. Religious unity therefore became not one of doctrine and identity but one of invisible character, wherein the unity was one of faith in Jesus Christ, not common identity, doctrine, belief, and collaborative action.

There are Protestants, especially of the, that either reject or down-play the designation Protestant because of the negative idea that the word invokes in addition to its primary meaning, preferring the designation Reformed, Evangelical or even Reformed Catholic expressive of what they call a Reformed Catholicity and defending their arguments from the traditional Protestant confessions. Ecumenism [ ]. The Edinburgh Missionary Conference is considered the symbolic starting point of the contemporary ecumenical movement. The ecumenical movement has had an influence on churches, beginning at least in 1910 with the. Its origins lay in the recognition of the need for cooperation on the mission field in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Since 1948, the has been influential, but ineffective in creating a united church. There are also ecumenical bodies at regional, national and local levels across the globe; but schisms still far outnumber unifications.

One, but not the only expression of the ecumenical movement, has been the move to form united churches, such as the, the, the US-based, the, the and the which have rapidly declining memberships. There has been a strong engagement of churches in the ecumenical movement, though the reaction of individual Orthodox theologians has ranged from tentative approval of the aim of Christian unity to outright condemnation of the perceived effect of watering down Orthodox doctrine.

A Protestant is held to be valid by the Catholic Church if given with the trinitarian formula and with the intent to baptize. However, as the ordination of Protestant ministers is not recognized due to the lack of and the disunity from Catholic Church, all other sacraments (except marriage) performed by Protestant denominations and ministers are not recognized as valid.

Therefore, Protestants desiring full communion with the Catholic Church are not re-baptized (although they are confirmed) and Protestant ministers who become Catholics may be ordained to the after a period of study. In 1999, the representatives of and Catholic Church signed the, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of which was at the root of the Protestant Reformation, although reject this statement. This is understandable, since there is no compelling authority within them.

On 18 July 2006, delegates to the World Methodist Conference voted unanimously to adopt the Joint Declaration. Spread and demographics [ ]. Countries by percentage of Protestants. There are more than 900 million Protestants worldwide, among approximately 2.4 billion Christians. In 2010, a total of more than 800 million included 300 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in the Americas, 140 million in Asia-Pacific region, 100 million in Europe and 2 million in Middle East-North Africa. Protestants account for nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide and more than one tenth of the total human population. Various estimates put the percentage of Protestants in relation to the total number of world's Christians at 33%, 36%, 36.7%, and 40%, while in relation to the world's population at 11.6% and 13%.

In European countries which were most profoundly influenced by the Reformation, Protestantism still remains the most practiced religion. These include the and the United Kingdom. In other historical Protestant strongholds such as Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Latvia, Estonia and Hungary, it remains one of the most popular religions.

Although Czech Republic was the site of, there are only few Protestant adherents; mainly due to historical reasons like persecution of Protestants by the, restrictions during the, and also the ongoing. Over the last several decades, religious practice has been declining as has increased.

According to a 2012 study about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by, Protestants made up 12% of the population. According to, Protestants constituted nearly one fifth (or 17.8%) of the in 2010. Clarke and Beyer estimate that Protestants constituted 15% of all Europeans in 2009, while Noll claims that less than 12% of them lived in Europe in 2010. Changes in worldwide Protestantism over the last century have been significant. Since 1900, Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, Oceania and Latin America. That caused Protestantism to be called a primarily non-Western religion.

Much of the growth has occurred after, when and abolition of in countries occurred. According to one source, Protestants constituted respectively 2.5%, 2%, 0.5% of Latin Americans, Africans and Asians. In 2000, percentage of Protestants on mentioned continents was 17%, more than 27% and 5.5%, respectively. According to Mark A. Noll, 79% of lived in the United Kingdom in 1910, while most of the remainder was found in the United States and across the. By 2010, 59% of Anglicans were found in Africa.

In 2010, more Protestants lived in India than in the UK or Germany, while Protestants in Brazil accounted for as many people as Protestants in the UK and Germany combined. Almost as many lived in each of and China as in all of Europe. China is home to world's largest Protestant minority. Protestantism is growing in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania, while declining in and Europe, with some exceptions such as France, where it was eradicated after the abolition of the by the and the following persecution of, but now is claimed to be stable in number or even growing slightly. According to some, is another country to see a Protestant revival. In 2010, the largest Protestant denominational families were historically Pentecostal denominations (10.8%), Anglican (10.6%), Lutheran (9.7%), Baptist (9%), (unions of different denominations) (7.2%), Presbyterian or Reformed (7%), Methodist (3.4%), Adventist (2.7%), Congregationalist (0.5%), (0.5%), (0.3%) and (0.1%).

Other denominations accounted for 38.2% of Protestants. United States is home to approximately 20% of Protestants. According to a 2012 study, Protestant share of U.S. Population dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religion of the majority for the first time. The decline is attributed mainly to the dropping membership of the churches, while and are stable or continue to grow. By 2050, Protestantism is projected to rise to slightly more than half of the world's total Christian population. According to other experts such as Hans J.

Hillerbrand, Protestants will be as numerous as Catholics. According to of the, popular Protestantism is the most dynamic religious movement in the contemporary world, alongside the resurgent. See also [ ].