Encircled Energy Factor in the PSF of an Amplitude Apodised Optical System Abstract: In the present paper, the Encircled Energy Factor (EEF) of an optical system has been studied with an amplitude apodisation filter. It has been found that for a given percentage of light flux within the diffraction pattern, the value of the encircled radius increases gradually with apodisation parameter. Key words: Fourier Optics, Apodisation, Encircled Energy FactorEEF (δ).
Reference  G.O Reynolds et al, 'The New physical Optics Note-book Tutorials in Fourier Optics', SPIE Optical Engineering Press, revised Edn, Bellingham, Washington USA, 1989. And Wolf.E 'Principles of Optics', 4th Edn, Pergamon Press London, 2006.
We review the work done to date in the field of nonlinear integrated optics. Emphasis is placed on (intrinsic) second‐ and third‐order phenomena occurring in planar geometry structures and several applications are discussed. All of the nonlinear interactions are discussed in a single notation. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
 P.K.Mondal, 'Fourier Analytical Treatment of Optical Images a review' Ind.Jour.Opti.  Ref.1 above.  Ref.2 above C.Vijender, A.Srisailam, M.V.Ramana Murthy 001-003 2. A Criss-Cross Metamaterial Based Electrically Small Antenna Abstract: Metamaterials (MM) have been able to make their position strong in the world of electromagnetic in the past years. Researchers have come up with several novel shapes which behave as metamaterials. The characteristic parameters of permittivity ε and the permeability μ were extracted by doing several experimentations and found them to be negative.
This paper presents such a new shape namely Criss-Cross whose negative behaviour has been discussed. The mathematical modelling for finding the transmission and reflection coefficient of the wave in such medium has also been derived. Further, it has been used to reduce the size of a rectangular patch antenna. Key words: Metamaterial, negative index, permeability, permittivity, Jerusalem Cross.
Reference  A. Shivola, 'Electromagnetic mixing formulas and applications', The Institution of Electrical Enginners, London, 1999.
 Veselago, V. G., 'The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,' Sov. 10, 509, 1968.  Kong, J.A., 'Electromagnetic fields due to dipole antennas over stratified anisotropic media,' Geophysics, Vol. 37, December, 1972, pp. Smith, et al., 'Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials', Physical Review E 71, 036617, 2005.
 Alexander Remley Katko, 'Artificial Negative Permeability Based on a Fractal Jerusalem Cross', Graduation thesis, 2009. Nicolson, G.F. Ross,'Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques', IEEE Trans. Weir, 'Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies', Proc. Of the IEEE vol. 33- 36, 1974.
 Ansoft HFSS Version 13.1, Ansys Inc. Canonsburg, PA. Kirti Inamdar, Dr. Patnaik 004-007 3. Energy Planning Policies With Environmental Considerations In Nigeria Abstract: The last decade has witnessed a fundamental change in the planning process for development in Nigeria. It is now recognized that the dimension of environment protection is of vital importance for sustainable development.
From the comparative survey of available energy planning models, it was found that the environmental considerations are limited only to estimating the pollution load, thus sending false price signals to the technology market and leading to environmentally distorted policy decisions. The main focus of this research is a methodology for integrated energy sector planning, policy impact assessment, and policy mix analysis, incorporating the impact of environmental externality cost of energy supply and use into the planning process. The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage.
Key words: Energy Policy, Externality, Nigeria Reference . (1983), Thin Film Solar Cells.
Plenum Press, New York. (1976), Un Modele Energetique Pour La France, Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Washington D. (1981), Solar Cell Device Physics, Academic Press, New York. (1976), Energy System Modeling and Forecasting, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York.
(1997), Energy Policy, Vol. 1, Elsevier Science Ltd, UK.
L., Wooley, D. (1991), Environmental Cost of Electricity, Pace University Centre for Environmental Legal Studies, Oceana Publications, New York. And Klimov, V. (2004), High Efficiency Carrier Multiplication in PbSe Nanocrystals: Implications for Solar Energy Conversion, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 18, 186601/1-4.
And Mangrove, A. (1994), A Regionalized Version of Markal: The International Energy Association, Australia. Okeke 008-012 4. Optical Fibres in the Modeling of Translucent Concrete Blocks Abstract: Translucent concrete is a concrete based material with light-transmissive properties, obtained due to embedded light optical elements like Optical fibers in it. Light is conducted through the stone from one end to the other. This results into a certain light pattern on the other surface, depending on the fibre structure.
Optical fibres transmit light so effectively that there is virtually no loss of light conducted through the fibres. Our paper deals with the modelling of such translucent or transparent concrete blocks and their usage and also the advantages it brings in the field of smart construction. Key words: Translucent concrete, optical fibre, energy saving, smart construction. Reference . Zhi Zhou1,2, Ge Ou, Ying Hang, Genda Chen, Jinping Ou., Research and Development of Plastic Optical Fiber Based Smart Transparent Concrete, published on Proc. 7293 72930F-1 . Jianping He, Zhi Zhou and Jinping Ou, Study on Smart Transparent Concrete Product and Its Performances,proceedings of The 6th International Workshop on Advanced Smart Materials and Smart Structures Technology ANCRiSST2011 July 25-26, 2011, Dalian, China .
Chung - Cement reinforced with short carbon fibers: a multifunctional material, paper published on Elsevier, Composites: Part B 31 (2000) 511±526 . Francesca Albani Transparent and Translucent Surfaces of Italian Architecture in the Thirties of XX Century, Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Construction History, Cottbus, May 2009 . Filiz Klassen Material Innovations: Transparent, lightweight, malleable and responsive, from Ryerson University, Toronto Ontario, Canada. Victoria Bailey, Translucent Concrete, published on MEEN 3344-001, 11:00- 11:50 MWF and ucent_concrete . M.N.V.Padma Bhushan, D.Johnson, Md. Afzal Basheer Pasha And Ms.
Prasanthi 013-017 5. An Algorithm For Interval Continuous –Time MIMO Systems Reduction Using Least Squares Method Abstract: A new algorithm for the reduction of Large Scale Linear MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) Interval systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method combines the Least squares methods shifting about a point 'a' together with the Moment matching technique.
The denominator of the reduced interval model is found by Least squares methods shifting about a point 'a' while the numerator of the reduced interval model is obtained by Moment matching Technique. The reduced order interval MIMO models retain the steady-state value and stability of the original interval MIMO system. The algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example. Key words: Least Squares Mean, Large scale Interval system, order reduction, MIMO Systems Reference  SHOJI,F.F., ABE,K., and TAKEDA,H.,: 'Model reduction for a class of linear dynamic systems‟, J.Franklin Inst.,319, pp.549-558, 1985. Lucas and A.R.Munro, 'Model reduction by generalized least squares method', Electron.Lett.,vol 27, No. 15, pp1383-1384, 1991.
 Lalonde, R,J.Hartley,T.T., and DE AbreuGarica,J.A.: 'Least squares model reduction', J.Franklin Inst., 329, pp 215- 240, 1992.  Sastry G.V.K.R, Mallikharjuna Rao.P., Surya Kalyan.G., ' A Novel model reduction method for linear discrete interval systems using Root clustering technique', Internl. Research and Industrial Applications, Vol.  Sastry G.V.K.R, Mallikharjuna Rao.P., Surya Kalyan.G., 'Order reduction of discrete time SISO interval systems using pole clustering technique', Internl J. Research and Industrial Applications., vol.4, 2011.
 O.Ismail,'Robust Control and Model Reduction for linear Structured Uncertain systems' Ph.D dissertation, IIT, Mumbai, 1996 K.Kiran Kumar, Dr.G.V.K.R.Sastry 018-021 6. Design & Implementation Of An Algorithm For Proximity Estimation In Sensor Network Abstract: Sensor networks are often used to perform monitoring tasks, such as in animal or vehicle tracking and in surveillance of enemy forces in military applications. In this project we will be introduce the concept of proximity queries that allow us to report interesting events that are observed by nodes in the network that are within certain distance of each other. An event is triggered when a user programmable predicate is satisﬁed on a sensor node.
To study the problem of computing proximity queries in sensor networks using existing communication protocols and then propose an efficient Algorithm that can process multiple proximity queries, involving several different event types. This project gives solution utilizes a distributed routing index, maintained by the nodes in the network that is dynamically updated as new observations are obtained by the nodes. This project presents an extensive experimental study to show the beneﬁts of this techniques under different scenarios. Key words: —position estimation, wireless sensors network, decentralized algorithm, position-based routing, location identiﬁcation Reference  Sanjiv Rao and V Vallikumari, Associate Professor, Dept of IT, Sri Sai Aditya Institute of Science And Technology, Surampalem, AP India.
Professor, Dept of CS&SE, College of Engineering, Andhra University. International Journal Of Advanced Smart Sensor Network Systems ( IJASSN ), Vol 2, No.2, April 2012  Khalid K. Almuzaini Student Member and T.AaronGulliverSenior Member Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Victoria Victoria, BC, Canada,  Cuong Pham Duc A. Tran Department of Computer Science University of Massachusetts, Boston Razia Haider, Dr. Muhammad Younus Javed, Naveed S. Khattak Department of Computer Science, Military College of Signal, National University of Science & Technology, Rawalpinid, Pakistan.
 Jaehun Lee, Wooyong Chung, and Euntai Kim School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.  Vaidyanathan Ramadurai, Mihail L. Sichitiu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering North Carolina State University  Umair Sadiq, Mohan Kumar Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Texas  Satoshi Kurihara, Toshiharu Sugawara, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Japan Dhananjay M. Sable, Latesh G. Malik 022-028 7. Optimization of Haematite Mass-Input for Minimum Remnant Sulphur Content in Iron Ore Beneficiated with Powdered Potassium Chlorate Abstract: A model was derived for optimization of haematite mass-input during its beneficiation with powdered potassium chlorate in order to ensure a minimum remnant sulphur condition in the ore.
The polynomial model; S=0.1233 2 -0.8042 +18.823 is rooted in the expression 5.3126 x 10-2 S=6.5505 x 10-3 2 - 0.0427 +1 where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal to 1. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted concentration of remnant sulphur (during the beneficiation process) from the concentrations obtained from regression model and experiment were less than 3 and 2% respectively.
These translate to confidence levels of 97 and 98% respectively. The remnant sulphur content of the ore per unit massinput of iron oxide ore beneficiatedas obtained from experiment, derived model and regression model are 0.4920, 0.5520 and 0.5335 mg/kg g -1 respectively. The standard errors in predicting the remnant ore sulphur for each mass-input value of the iron oxide ore beneficiated (STEYX) is 0.3778 compared to experimental (0.4920) and regression model (2.805 x 10-5 ). The measure of variability (AVEDEV) in the results of concentrations of remnant ore sulphur from regression model, experimental and modelpredicted are 6.6625, 6.6625 and 6.6430% respectively. The F-test between the derived and regression model is 0.8234 and then 0.9814 between the derived and experimental results. Evaluations from experimental results and optimization of massinput of the iron oxide ore as well as predictions by derived model (D-Model) and regression model (RModel) indicate that a minimum remnant sulphur content of the ore ≈ 18 mg/kg would be achieved at an optimum ore mass-input of 3.2616g during the beneficiation process providing the mass-input of oxidant (KClO3) and treatment temperature remained constant. Key words: Model, Optimization, Haematite Massinput, Minimum Remnant Sulphur.
P., Workshop Technology, part 1, 5th edition, Edward Arnold, London, 1972, 31-51. P., Electrometallurgy of steel and Ferroalloys. MIR publishers, Moscow, 1, 1979, 99. I., Gaseous Desulphrization of Agbaja Iron Ore Concentrate. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
3, 2008, 72-75. I., Process Analysis and Mechanism of Desulphurization of Agbaja Iron Oxide Ore, JMME, 8, 2009, 27-32. I, Anyakwo C.
U., Inyama S, Ejimofor, R, and Nwakwuo C. C., Model for Predictive Analysis of the Concentration of Sulphur Removed by Molecular-Oxygen-Induced Desulphurization of Iron Oxide OreJournal of Nature and Science. 7, 2009, 36 6. I, Inyama S, and Eke H., Model for Predicting the Concentration of Sulphur Removed During Temperature Enhanced Oxidation of Iron Oxide Ore. Journal of American Science, 5, 2009, 49- 54. And Trans, T., Model for Computational Analysis of the Concentration of Sulphur Removed during Oxidation of Iron Oxide Ore by Powdered Potassium Chlorate, Journal of Advances in Science and Technology. 3, 2009, 45-49.
I, Nwakwuo C. U, Onuora E., Obiji S, Mbuka I. And Obasi, G. Model for Predicting the Concentration of Sulphur Removed during Gaseous State Desulphurization of Iron Oxide Ore, Journal of Engineering and Earth Sciences (in press) 9.
A., Essential Chemistry, 1st Edition, Lagos, 2003, 169-186. I., C-NIKBRAN; Data Analytical Memory, 2008. Ameh 029-037 8. Efficient Clocking System Using Sequential Elements With Low Power Consumption Abstract: Low power flip-flops which plays a vital role for the design of low-power digital systems. Flip flops and latches consume a large amount of power due to redundant transitions and clocking system.
In addition, the energy consumed by low skew clock distribution network is steadily increasing and becoming a larger fraction of the chip power. Almost, 30% - 60% of total power dissipation in a system is due to flip flops and clock distribution network.
In order to achieve a design that is both high performances while also being power efficient, careful attention must be paid to the design of flip flops and latches. We survey a set of flip flops designed for low power and High performance. Key words: Flip-flop, Low Power, Clocking system. Reference  C. Kang, 'A low-swing clock double edge-triggered flip-flop,' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.
648–652, May 2002. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003. Jun, 'Conditional capture flip-flop for statistical power reduction,' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 8, pp.1263–1271, Aug.
Darwish, and M. Bayoumi, 'High-performance and lowpower conditional discharge flip-flop,' IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol.
477–484, May 2004. Ikumi, and Y. Oowaki, 'Conditional data mapping flip-flops for low-power and high-performance systems,' IEEE Trans.
Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst.,vol.
1379–1383, Dec.  Peiyi Zhao, Jason McNeely, WeidongKuang, Nan Wang, and'Design of Sequential Elements for Low PowerClocking System' IEEE Transaction May 2011 K.Umadevi, P.Vishnu, B.Kailasam 038-041 9.
Software as a Service (SaaS) for Management information system using multiple tenants Abstract: Today, reliable broadband internet access, service-oriented architectures (SOAs), and the cost inefficiencies of managing dedicated on-premises applications are driving a transition toward the delivery of decomposable, managed, shared, Web-based services called software as a service (SaaS). Tenants using a multitenant service operate in virtual isolation from one another; Organizations can use and customize an application as though they each have a separate instance, yet their data and customizations remain secure and insulated from the activity of all other tenants. The single application instance effectively morphs at runtime for any particular tenant at any given time. Multitenancy is an architectural approach that pays dividends to both application providers and users. Operating just one application instance for multiple organizations yields tremendous economy of scale for the provider. Only one set of hardware resources is necessary to meet the needs of all users, a relatively small, experienced administrative staff can efficiently manage only one stack of software and hardware, and developers can build and support a single code base on just one platform (operating system, database, etc.) rather than many. The economics afforded by multitenancy allow the application provider in turn offer the service at a lower cost to customers.
Key words: Cloud Computing, Multitenancy, SaaS, Virtualized database. Reference . Force.com, 'The Force.com Multitenant Architecture Understanding the Design of Salesforce.com's Internet Application Development Platform', White paper .
Qihong Shao 'Towards Effective and Intelligent Multi-tenancy SaaS',UMI Dissertation publishing, May 2011  International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231- 2307, Volume-2, Issue-1, March 2012 421  UNDERSTANDING The Cloud Computing Stack SaaS, Paas, IaaS, © Diversity Limited, 2011 Non-commercial reuse with attribution permitted.  Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2012 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering. Bennett et al., 'An Architectural Model for Service-Based Software with Ultra Rapid Evolution,' Proc.IEEE Int'l Conf. Software Maintenance (ICSM 01),IEEE CS Press, 2001, pp.  Haitham Yaish, Madhu Goyal, George Feuerlicht, 'An Elastic Multi-tenant Database Schema for Software as a Service', 2011 Ninth IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing.  Wonjae Lee, Min Choi,' A Multi-tenant Web Application Framework for SaaS', 2012 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Cloud Computing  Lei Ju, Bikram Sengupta,Abhik Roychoudhury,' Tenant Onboarding in Evolving Multi-tenant Software-as-aService Systems', 2012 IEEE 19th International Conference on Web Services.  www.justlogin.com/leave-managementsoftware,ELeave.
 www.hr2000.com,e-Leave Management System. Rachana Desale, Purva Kolhatkar, Anju More, Piyush Katira, Vishal Kokane Prof.S.M.Jaybhaye 042-046 10.
Audio Watermarking Using Lsb With Adjustment Method Abstract: In this paper we are discussing watermarking on audio signals. In this method the recorded audio data is first sampled using a sampling frequency of 22050 Hz. Then the watermark message is watermarked into the sampled data of the audio signal.
In this method the adjustment is done to increase the accuracy of the watermarked signal. Finally we extract the message from the audio data. Key words: Watermarking, LSB, Adjustment method Reference  F. Hartung and M.
Kutter, ―Multimedia Watermarking Techniques,‖ in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 87, no.7, pp. 1079-1107, July 1999.  Chi-Kwong Chan, L.M. Cheng ―Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution ―Pattern Recognition 37 (2004) 469– 474, ww.elsevier.com/locate/patcog.  Dr.M.A.Dorairangaswamy ―A Robust Blind Image Watermarking Scheme in Spatial Domain for Copyright Protection‖ International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol. 1, No.3, August, 2009, ISSN: 1793-8236.
Pitas,‖A method for signature casting on digital images,‖Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing,‖ Vol. 3, pp.215-318,1996.
Wolfgang and E. Delp, ‖ A watermark for digital images,‖ Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Vol.
2, pp.319-222, 1996.  Sanghyun Joo, Youngho Suh, Jaeho Shin, and Hisakazu Kikuchi ―A New Robust Watermark Embedding into Wavelet DC Components ‖ ETRI Journal, Volume 24, Number 5, October 2002.  Sadi Vural, Hiromi Tomii, Hironori Yamauchi ―DWT Based Robust Watermarking Embeded Using CRC-32 Techniques‖ World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 5 2005.  Kundur D., and Hatzinakos, D., ‗A Robust Digital Image Water- marking Scheme using Wavelet-Based fusion,' Proc. On Image Processing, Santa Barbara, California, vol. 544- 547, October 1997. Ansith.S, Priyanka Udayabhanu 047-049 11.
Kiswahili Linux Localization: Will Kiswahili be used worldwide in the Information and Communication Technology Abstract: Any nation using its own language as the national language has to consider herself as a nation of self confidence and identity. Tanzania with a population of more than 40 million people is proud of using its natural language Kiswahili in the daily communications. However, Kiswahili is not present in the potential and promising sector of the new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). This paper describes the relevance of Kiswahili as the national and regional language and the need for bringing Kiswahili into the Information and Communication Technologies sector. The paper presents an initiative to localize Open Source Software including such as open office, firefox browser, Linux and others to Kiswahili and a proposed methodology to accomplish this challenge.
Key words: Kiswahili, ICT, Open Source Software, Localization Reference (1) M.M.Mulokozi, Kiswahili as a National Language, Institute of Asian and African Studies IAS), Finland 2002. (2) Tanzania Planning Commission, The Tanzania National Development Vision 2025. Last accessed on (3) GNU Project, Definition of Free Software. Last accessed 29 Dec 2012 (4) Debian 110n Spanish, Spanish Localization Effort. Lists.debian.org/debian- 110n-spanish/ last accessed on 10th Sept. 2012 (5) GNU Gettext Project, Tools to produce multi-lingual messages.
Http:/www.gnu.org/directory/localization/ge ttext.html last accessed Dec. Visnovsky, M. Kiefer, The Kbabel Handbook Last accessed 13th August 2012 (7) V. Slavik, Cross.platform gettext catalogs editor. Last accessed Nov. Atkinson, GNU Spell Checker Last accessed Oct.
2012 Hashim M. Twaakyondo 050-053 12. An Innovative Strategy for Maintenance of Highway Pavement Abstract: Highway pavement are deteriorating fast due to lack of timely maintenance, leading to higher vehicle operating costs, increasing number of accidents etc. Thus, timely maintenance of the highway pavement is essential. Because, once pavements start to deteriorate; they deteriorate rapidly beyond the point where maintenance is effective. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a strategy for maintenance of pavement in a huge highway network. In this study, an innovative strategy for maintenance of highway pavement is proposed.
A two stage maintenance strategy is proposed. In stage I, it is proposed to determine priority of highway sections. In Stage II, priority of various maintenance activities to be carried out on various sections will be determined. Maintenance priority of the pavement is based on importance of the road sections, present road conditions, and future road conditions. The methodology proposed in this study is illustrated with the help of example of some hypothetical highway network consisting of 4 sections. Analysis results indicated that the proposed strategy is considered to be more rational, innovative & logical. Some strategies for maintenance of urban roads are also presented in this study.
Therefore, it is expected that this study will be useful for maintenance of huge highway network in India and thus will be useful for preserving huge asset of pavement infrastructure Key words: Highway Maintenance; Maintenance Strategy; Maintenance Priority; Maintenance of urban roads, Reference 1) Agarwal, P.K.,'Road Condition, Prioritization and optimal resource allocation for Highway Maintenance at Network Level', Ph. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, 2006.
2) Choudhary, S. 'An Innovative Strategy for Highway Maintenance in India' M.Tech Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering MANIT, Bhopal, 2011 (thesis submitted). Shailendra and Veeraragavan,. A., 'Quantification of benefits of Improved Pavement performance due to Good Drainage,' IRC Journal Volume. 71- 1January March 2010 4) IRC: 82-1982 'Code of Practice for Maintenance of Bituminous Surfaces of Highway', Indian Road Congress, New Delhi.
5) Jain, S.S., Gupta A.K. And Khanna, S.K., 'Pavement Evaluation and Overlay Design for Efficient Management System in India', Proc.
14th ARRB Conference, Australia, Aug-Sept. 6) Jain, S.S. And Gupta, A.K, Khanna, S.K. & Dayanand, ' Development of Maintenance and Rehabilitation Investment Strategy for Flexible Pavements', IRC Journal Volume 57-2, in june-1996 7) Jain, S.S. And Gupta, A.K & Rastogi Sanjeev, 'Study of influencing Parameters for Efficient Maintenance Management of Flexible Pavements', Paper No. 411, IRC Journal Volume 53-1, in June 1992, pp. 8) Khanna, S.K., and Justo, C.E.G., (1993), 'Highway Engineering', New Chand and Bros, 7th edition, New Delhi.
9) Nagabhushana, M.N., Jain, P.K., Kanchan.P.K. 'Innovative Strategies for Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Metropolitan City Roads-A Case Study,' Indian Highways, June 2010, pp. 10) Puare S., 'An Development of Pavement Management System for Rigid Pavement in India: Some Issues' M.Tech Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering MANIT, Bhopal, 2011 (thesis submitted).
11) Reddy, Sathees Kumar, Veeraragavan, C.V., 'Pragmatic Approach for the Maintenance Management of Rural Highways,' Indian Road Congress Journal Volume 56-2, New Delhi, 1995. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr.
Agarwal 054-060 13. Power Plant- A Scientific Disaster Abstract: The present paper emphasisesthe society's movement towards improvement of power sector as a pavement of luxury and on the benighted dark side of it. This produces the reasons for enchanting power plant as a scientific disaster.
This paper gives the detailed list of effects caused by the power plants mainly on coal fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power plants, their adverse effects on environment and in turn human life. Key words: power plants, coal, nuclear, human habitation Reference  Mishra U.C., Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India, J Environ Radio act, 72(1-2), 35-40 (2004)  Jamil S., Abhilash P.C., Singh A., Singh N. And BhelHari M., Fly ash trapping and metal accumulation capacity of plant, implication of for green belt around thermal power plant, J.
And Urban Plan, 92, 136-147 (2009)  Fulekar M.H. And Dave J.M., Release and behaviour of Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb in a fly‐ash/soil/water environment: column experiment, into. Of Environmental Studies, 4, 281-296 (1991)  Pvrecek, Lbendik, Pb210 and Po210 in fossil fuel at the sustain thermal power plant (Slovenia), Czechoslovak j of phy, 53-a51-a (2003)  F˙IL˙IZ G ¨ UR and G ¨ UNSEL˙I YAPRAK, Natural radionuclide emission from coal-fired power plants in the south western of Turkey and the population exposure to external radiation in their vicinity, J.
And Health Part A, 45, 1900–1908 (2010)  Kant K., Chakarvarti S.K Environmental impact of coal utilization in thermal power plant, J. Of Punjab Acad. &Toxi, 3, 15-18 (2003)  SenapatiManasRanjan, Fly ash from thermal power plants – waste management and overview current science, 100, 1791- 1794 (2011)  korba.gov.in/kwflyash.htm (2012)  Coal ash and mercury: why coal a health hazard by David Shearman and Mariann Lloyd-Smith (2010) Dharmateja Bandlamudi, Sahithi Avirneni 061-065 14. Fair Contract Signing Protocol Based On Secret Sharing Abstract: A fair contract signing protocol allows two potentially mistrusted parties to exchange their commitments to an agreed contract over the Internet in a fair way so that either each of them obtains the others signature or neither party does. The existing protocols face the problem of more number of transactions in between TTP and party.
Also the time complexity and computational complexities are more. In this paper we are proposing a fair contract signing protocol based on secret sharing scheme. The proposed method satisfies property of abuse freeness and fairness. That is if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, none of the two parties can show the validity of intermediate results to others. The proposed scheme is more reliable, secure and less complex. Key words: Contract signing, Secret Sharing, Visual Cryptography Reference  Abadi, N.
Horne, and B. Pinkas, 'Certified e-mail with a light on-line trusted third party: Design and implementation,' in Proc.2002 Int.World Wide Web Conf. (WWW‟02), 2002, pp. 387–395, ACM Press. Shoup, and M. Waidner, 'Optimistic fair exchange of digital signatures,' in Proc.
EUROCRYPT‟98, 1998, vol. 1403, LNCS, pp. 591–606, SpringerVerlag. Shoup, and M.
Waidner, 'Optimistic fair exchange of digital signatures,' IEEE J. Areas Commun., vol. 4, pp.591–606, Apr.
Ateniese, 'Efficient verifiable encryption (and fair exchange) of digital signature,' in Proc. Computer and Communications Security  Rajasree R. S., 'RSA based solution for fair contracr signing' International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, Vol.
Shamir, 'How to share a secret,' Communications of the ACM, vol. 612–613, Nov. Shamir, 'Visual cryptography', Proc. Eurocrypt ‟94, Lecture Notes Computer Sci., Vol. 950, pp.1-12, 1994.
 R.L.Rivest,A.Shamir and L.Adleman,'Amethod for obtaining digital signature and public-key cryptosystem',commun.ACM,vol.21 no.2,pp. 120-126,Feb.1978  J.M.Park,E.Chhong,H.J. Siegel and I.Ray,'Constructing fair exchange for ecommerce via distributed computation of RSA signatures' in Proc.PODC,2003,pp172-181,ACM press Rajasree R.S., Sonali Patil 066-069 15.
TRANSPORTATION NETWORK ANALYSIS BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS A REVIEW Abstract: With the advent technology of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a network transportation (Road) analysis within this environment has now become a common practice in many application areas. But a main problem in the network transportation analysis is the less quality and insufficient maintenance policies. This is because of the lack of funds for infrastructure. This demand for information requires new approaches in which data related to transportation network can be identified, collected, stored, retrieved, managed, analyzed, communicated and presented, for the decision support system of the organization. The adoption of newly emerging technologies such as Geographic Information System (GIS) can help to improve the decision making process in this area for better use of the available limited funds.
The paper reviews the applications of GIS technology for transportation network analysis Key words: GIS, Network Analysis, Remote Sensing, Transportation Reference  Emilio Chuvieco and Alfredo Huete, Fundamental of Satellite Remote Sensing (CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2010).  Michael Batty and Paul J. Densham, Decision Support, GIS, And Urban Planning, January 1996 (nners /decission_gis_planning.htm).  Dr.K.M.Lakshmana Rao and K.Jayasree, Rural Infrastructure Planning with emphasis on road network connectivity by Coplanar Concurrent Theory, Map India Conference 2003. Anderson, Ernest E.
Hardy, John T. Roach, and Richard E.
Witmer,A LandUse and Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data, Geological Survey Professional Paper 964 (1976).  Ravindra Kumar Verma, Sangeeta Kumari and R. Tiwary, Application Of Remote Sensing And GIS Technique For Efficient Urban Planning In India, (34097016_Application_of_Remote_Sensi ng_and_GIS_Technique_for_Efficient_Ur ban_Planning_in_India). Kazemi and S. Lim, Deriving MultiScale GEODATA from TOPO-250K Road Network Data, (cations/kazemi_etal2006a.pdf).  Alistair Edwardes and William Mackaness, Intelligent Generalisation Of Urban Road Networks, (wardesMack2000b.pdf).  Gopala Raju SSSV, Durga Rani K and Balaji KVGD, Analysis of road network in Visakhapatnam city using geographical information systems, Indian Society for Education and Environment (iSee) International Journal May 2012.
Praveen Kumar, Dhanunjaya Reddy and Varun Singh, Intelligent transport system using GIS, Map India Conference 2003.  R.Nijagunappa, Sulochana Shekhar, B. Gurugnanam, P.L.N.
Raju And Prabir De, Road Network Analysis Of Dehradun City Using High Resolution Satellite Data And GIS, Journal Of The Indian Society Of Remote Sensing, Vol. Bharti W.Gawali 070-076 16. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers Abstract: Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers.
Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software.
A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) to semantically find plagiarism. Key words: Decision Support Systems, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF), Text Mining Reference  J. Vesanto and E.
Alhoniemi, ―Clustering of the self-organizing map', IEEE Trans. Neural Netw, vol. 3, May 2000, 586–600.
 Juan Ramos, ―Using TF-IDF to Determine Word Relevance in Document Queries‖, Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University, 23515 BPO Way, Piscataway, NJ, 08855. Feldman and J.
Sanger, ―The Text Mining Handbook: Advanced Approaches in Analyzing Unstructured Data‖. New York: Cambridge Univ.  Zukas, Anthony, Price, Robert J., ―Document Categorization Using Latent Semantic Indexing White Paper‖ Content Analyst Company, LLC.  Jian Ma, Wei Xu, Yong-hong Sun, Efraim Turban, Shouyang Wang, and OuLiu ―An Ontology-Based TextMining Method to Cluster Papers for Research Project Selection,‖ IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics—part a: systems and humans, vol. Wangn, C.F.Cheung,―A Semantic-based Intellectual Property Management System (SIPMS) for supporting patent analysis‖,Knowledge Management Research Centre, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering,The HongKong Polytechnic University, HungHom,Kowloon, Hong Kong.  Milic-Frayling, N., 2005.
―Text processing and information retrieval‖,In Zanasi, A. (Ed.), Text Mining and its Applications to Intelligence, CRM and Knowledge Management. WIT Press, Southampton Boston, pp.  Wise, M., ―YAP3: improved detection of similarities in computer program and other texts‖, Proceedings of twenty seventh SIGCSE technical symposium on computer science education, Philadelphia, USA. 130-134, 1996.
 Chen, X., B. Mckinnon and A. Seker, ―Shared Information and Program Plagiarism Detection‖, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.
50, pp.1545- 1551, 2004  Prechelt, Lutz, Guido Malpohl, Michael Phlippsen, ―JPlag: Finding plagiarisms among set of programs‖, Technical Report 2000-1, March 28, 2000  Apiratikul, P., ―Document Fingerprinting Using Graph Grammar Induction', Masters Thesis submitted to the Department of Computer Sciences, Oklahoma State University,2004 Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe 077-080 17. Analysis and Modeling of Agricultural Land use using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System: a Review Abstract: GIS, remote sensing and Global positioning System are the most widely useful tools for land use planning and decision support system. Remotely sensed imagery is beneficial for agricultural production.
It gives the accurate information of agricultural activities such as different crop identification and classification, crop condition monitoring, crop growth, crop area and yield estimation, mapping of soil characteristics and precision farming. Information from remotely sensed imagery, geographic information system and global positioning system allows farmers to carry only affected areas of a field. Problems within the field may be identified before they create a big problem in the agricultural production using remotely sensed images. This paper attempts to review different techniques for various applications of GIS and Remote sensing for land use/land cover change detection, crop identification and classification, crop condition monitoring, crop growth, crop area and yield estimation, mapping of soil characteristics and precision farming. Thus implementating GIS and RS for better production of the crops as well as land use/land cover change detection can be achieved. Key words: Classification, Crop acreage and yield estimation, Precision farming, RS and GIS, Soil mapping Reference  Meliadis Ioannis, Miltiadis Meliadis, Multi-temporal Landsat image classification and change analysis of land cover/use in the Prefecture of Thessaloiniki, Greece, Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 1(1): 15-25, 2011.
Tripathi and Manish Kumar, Remote Sensing Based Analysis of Land Use / Land Cover Dynamics in Takula Block, Almora District (Uttarakhand), J Hum Ecol, 38(3): 207-212, 2012.  c.ca.earthsciences/files/pdf/resource/tutor/ fundam/pdf/fundamentals_e.pdf.%20Levin/1999-fundamentals-of-remote sensing.pdf.,p.p-3,4,5.  Goswami S. Aruna Saxena and Dr. Bairagi, Remote Sensing and GIS based wheat crop acreage estimation of Indore district, M.P., International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012.  lture/agriculture-c00-p01-a.html.  Sandeep Kr.
Soni, Crop Area Estimation for Bundi Tahsil of Rajasthan using Remote Sensing and GIS Technique, Geospatial World Forum, Hyderabad, India, 18-21-janeuary 2011. (Williams) Coleman and John M.
Galbraith, Using GIS as an Agricultural Land-Use Planning Tool, Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 00-2, Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Science College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Virginia Tech, December-2000.  Ujoh Fanan, Kwabe Isa Dlama and Ifatimehin Olarewaju Oluseyi, Urban expansion and vegetal cover loss in and around Nigeria's Federal Capital City, Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment Vol. 1-10, January 2011.  Lakshumanan.C, Pradeep Kishore.V, Viveganandan.S, Krishnakumar.P, Muthusankar.G, Landuse / Land cover dynamics study in Nilgiris district part of Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, International Journal of Geomatics And Geosciences, Volume 2, No 3, 2012. Gawali 081-091 18. Autonomous Reconfiguration for Wireless Mesh Network Abstract: The demands for the network usage are increasing day by day. During their lifetime, multihop wireless mesh networks (WMNs) experience frequent link failures caused by channel interference, dynamic obstacles, and/or applications' bandwidth demands, which may degrade the system performance.
This paper presents an autonomous network reconfiguration system (ANRS) that enables a multiradio WMN to autonomously recover from local link failures to preserve network performance. Using ANRS necessary changes are made in local and radio channel assignments for failure recovery. Next, based on the thusgenerated configuration changes, the system cooperatively reconfigures network settings among local mesh routers. ANRS has been implemented extensively on our IEEE 802.11- based WMN through ns2-based simulation. Our evaluation results show that ANRS outperforms existing failure-recovery schemes in improving channel-efficiency and in the ability of meeting the applications' bandwidth demands. Key words: -IEEE 802.11, multiradio wireless mesh networks (mr-WMNs), Routing, selfreconfigurable networks, wireless link failures. Reference  I.
Wang, ―Wireless mesh networks: A survey,‖ Comput. 445– 487, Mar. Kyasanur and N. Vaidya, ―Capacity of multi-channel wireless networks: Impact of number of channels and interfaces,‖ in Proc. ACM MobiCom, Cologne, Germany, Aug. Ramanchandran, E.
Belding-Royer, and M. Buddhikot, ―Interference- aware channel assignment in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,‖ in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Barcelona, Spain, Apr.
Padhye, and B. Zill, ―Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless mesh networks,‖ in Proc. ACM MobiCom, Philadelphia, PA, Sep.
Aguayo et al., ―Link-level measurements from an 802.11b mesh network,‖ in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 2004, Aug. Willsky, ―A Survey of Design Methods for Failure Detection in Dynamic Systems,‖ Automatica, vol. 601– 611, 1976. Brzezinski, G. Zussman, and E. Modiano, ―Enabling distributed throughput maximization in wireless mesh networks: A partitioning approach,‖ in Proc.
ACM MobiCom, Los Angeles, CA, Sep. 2006, pp26–37. Bicket, and R. Morris, ―A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing,‖ in Proc. ACM MobiCom, San Diego, CA, Sep. B.Sindhu, V.Bharathi, N.Karthikeyan 092-099 19. A Computational Approach for Analyzing and Detecting Emotions in Arabic Text Abstract: The field of Affective Computing (AC) expects to narrow the communicative gap between the highly emotional human and the emotionally challenged computer by developing computational systems that recognize and respond to the affective states of the user.
Affect-sensitive interfaces are being developed in number of domains, including gaming, mental health, and learning technologies. Emotions are part of human life. Recently, interest has been growing among researchers to find ways of detecting subjective information used in blogs and other online social media. This paper concerned with the automatic detection of emotions in Arabic text. This construction is based on a moderate sized Arabic emotion lexicon used to annotate Arabic children stories for the six basic emotions: Joy, Fear, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, and Surprise. Our approach achieves 65% accuracy for emotion detection in Arabic text. Key words: Emotion recognition, affective computing, human- machine interaction, emotional Arabic lexicon, text analysis.
Reference  W. Yorick, Emotion in Human-Agent Interfaces (January 2006). Turkle, The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit (Simon & Schuster, 1984). Mingyu, L.Na, Ch. Chun, A robust multimodal approach for emotion recognition (College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, China, 2008). 'Are there basic emotions?' 3 Dimensional Drawing Andrew Loomis Pdf Free more.
, Psychological Review, 99, pp. Frijda, 'Emotion, Cognitive Structure, and Action Tendency,' Cognition and Emotion, vol. 115-143, 1987. Miguel, F.Inmaculada, C.Idoia, An Ontology for Description of Emotional Cues, (Computer Science Faculty; University of the Basque Country, 2005). Charlene, and K. On posture as a modality for expressing and recognizing emotions. UCLIC, University College London, Remax House, Alfred Place, London WC1E 7DP, UK.
Elizabeth, N. Christian, Let's get emotional: Emotion research in human computer interaction, (California, USA, April 2007). Mingyu, L.Na, Ch. Chun, A robust multimodal approach for emotion recognition (College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, China, 2008).  Shiv Naresh Shivhare, Saritha Khethawat, 'Emotion Detection from Text', CS & IT 05, 2012, pp.371-377. El Gohary, Torky I.
Sultan, Maha A. Hana, Mohamed M. El Dosoky 100-107 20. Deciding the Correct Usage of Database Queries, Data Mining and OLAP in an Applications Abstract: In the recent years, numbers of the studies have been done on different techniques of information retrieval. These retrieval techniques includes Database Queries, Data Mining and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP).The retrieved information is used for various purposes according to the different requirements. The retrieved information might be used for the purpose of Analysis, for the purpose of various users behavior prediction or for the purpose of Decision Support System (DSS).Now the confusion is that when to use Database Queries, when to use Data Mining and when to use Online Analytical Processing (OLAP).This paper elaborates the usage of Database queries, Data Mining, OLAP according to the user's purpose, requirements at the particular instant.
The paper also emphasized on performance of these techniques with appropriate examples. The goal of paper is to give the better clue to the user about the usage of techniques such as Database Queries, Data Mining and OLAP in an application to get the information in an easy way with efficient performance.
Key words: Database Queries, Data Mining, Decision Support System (DSS), Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Reference . Choudhary, 'High performance OLAP and data mining on parallel computers,' Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, vol. 391-417, Dec. Alahakoon and A. Hsu, 'Enhancing OLAP functionality using selforganizing neural networks,' Neural, Parallel and Scientific Computations, vol.
1-20, March 2004. Boussaid and S. Rabaseda, 'A new OLAP aggregation based on the AHC technique,' in Proc. Of the 7th ACM Int'l Workshop on Data Warehousing and OLAP (DOLAP), ACM New York, 2004, pp. Han, 'Towards online analytical mining in large databases,' ACM SIGMOD Record, vol. 97-107, March 1998 .
Zhu, 'Online analytical mining of association rules,' Master Thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1998, pp. Fong, 'Online analytical mining Webpages tick sequences,' J. Of Data Warehousing, vol. 59-67, 2000 . Hristovski and B.
Peterlin, 'Using data mining and OLAP to discover patterns in a database of patients with Y chromosome deletions,' in Proc. AMIA Symp., 2000, pp. Al., 'Interactive color mosaic and dendrogram displays for signal/noise optimization in microarray data analysis,' in Proc. On Multimedia and Expo-Volume 3, 2003, pp.  Sarbani Dasgupta, Soumya Sen, Nabendu Chaki; 'A Framework To Convert XML Schema to ROLAP'; Proc. On Emerging Applications of Information Technology, 2011.  Muhammad Usman, Sohail Asghar, Simon Fong'Data Mining and Automatic OLAP Schema Generation'.
 Soumya Sen, Ranak Ghosh, Debanjali Paul, NabenduChaki; 'Integrating Related XML Data into MultipleData Warehouse Schemas'; Proc. Of the First International Conference on Information Technology Convergence and Services (ITCS 2012), Bangalore, India. Nitin S.Kharat 119-122 23. A Simplified Topology for Seven Level Modified Multilevel Inverter with Reduced Switch Count Technique Abstract: In this paper, a seven level modified cascaded multilevel inverter is proposed for industrial drive applications.
Apart from selecting the conventional level inverters, Multi level inverters has been chosen for the industrial drive applications as it reduces the total harmonic distortion. The involvement of higher number of switches increases the complexity of the system, which leads to losses in switching, producing huge harmonics and in the end, it entirely reduces the efficiency of the system.
The cascaded multilevel inverter involves only fewer switches, where it reduces the complexity of the system which in turn reduces the harmonics and reduces the complexity of the system and in total it reduces the total harmonics distortion. Key words: Cascaded Multilevel Inverter, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor, Pulse Width Modulation, Total Harmonic Distortion. Reference  Franquelo, L.G., (2008), 'The age of multilevel converter arrives', IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, Vol.2, No.2, 28-39.
 Rodriguez, J., Lai, J.S. & Peng, F.Z., (2002) 'Multilevel Inverters: Survey of topologies, controls, and applications', IEEE Trans. Vol.49, No.4, 724- 738.  Corzine, K.A., Wielebski, M.W., Peng, F.Z & Wang, J., (2004), 'Control of cascaded multilevel inverters', IEEE Trans. Power Electron. Vol.19, No.3, 732-738.
 Chiasson, J.N. Tobert, L.M., McKenzie, K.J.
& Du, Z., (2004), 'A Unified Approach to Solving the Harmonic Elimination Equations in Multilevel Converters', IEEE Trans. Power Electron, Vol.19, No.2, pp.  Patel, H.S. & Hoft, R.G., (1973), 'Generalized Techniques of Harmonic Elimination and Voltage Control in Thyristor Inverters: Part I – Harmonic Elimination', IEEE Trans.
Appl., 3, pp. 'Development of a Single Phase SPWM Microcontroller-Based Inverter' First International Power and Energy Conference PEC, Putrajaya, Malaysia: IEEE, Nov, 28 -29, 2006.  Fang Zheng Peng 'A Generalized Multilevel Inverter Topology with Self Voltage Balancing', IEEE Trans. Ind.Appl., Vol.37, No.2, March/April 2001.  Z.Du, L.m.Tolbert, J.N.Chiasson, and B.Opineci, 'A cascaded multilevel inverter using a single dc power source', in Proc.
IEEE APEC, pp.426-430, 2006.  W.Menzies, P.Steimer, and J.K.Steinke, 'Five level GTO inverters for large induction motor drives,' IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.30, No.4, pp.938-944, July 1994.  Martin Veenstra, INVESTIGATION AND CONTROL OF A HYBRID ASYMMETRIC MULTI-LEVEL INVERTER FOR MEDIUM-VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS, 2003, Lausanne, EPFL. G.Arunkumar, A.Prakash, R.Subramanian 128-132 25. The Effect Of Rice Husk Ash Used As Supplementary Cementing Material On Strength Of Mortar Abstract: This paper summarizes the experimental studies on strength characteristics of cement mortar in which rice husk ash (RHA) is used as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC).
Cement mortar paste were proportioned with varying dosages of RHA as partial replacement of OPC in the range of 5%to 30% by weight of cement. The compressive strength test was carried out as per relevant Indian standard code of practice. It has been observed that replacement of cement to the extent of approximately 10% by weight of cement was found to give the optimum results for the 28 days strength. Key words: Rice husk ash, mortar, pozzolanic material, strength. Reference  A.A. Ramezanianpour, P.
Mahdikhani, and F. 'Mechanical properties and durability of concrete containing rice husk ash as supplementary cementing material' International Journal of Civil Engineering. 2, June 2009, June 2010.  Alireza Naji Givi, suraya Abdul Rashid, Farah Nora A. Aziz, Mohamad AmranMohd Salleh. -'contribution of Rice husk ash to the properties of mortar and concrete A Review' Journal of American science: 2010.
 Moayad N Al-Khalaf and Hana A Yousif, 'Use of Rice husk ash in Concrete', the International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, Vol. 6, November 4 1984.  Muhammad Soaib Ismail and A.
Waliuddin, 'Effect of rice husk ash on high strength concrete', Construction and Building Material, Vol. 7, 1996, 521-526.  Gemma Rodriguez de Sensale, 'Strength development of concrete with Rice-husk ash', Cement & Concrete Composite, Vol. 28, 2006, 158-160  IS 456 (2000).
Plain and reinforced concrete - Code of Practice. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi  IS 8112 (1989). Specification for OPC-43 grade cement. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.  IS 1727-1967 (reaffirmed 1999) edition 2.1 (1991-10) methods of test for pozzolanic materials.
Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.  IS: 650 – 1966. Specification of standard sand for testing cement (first Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
1966  IS: 4031 – 1988 (PART 1to 4). Method of physical test for hydraulic cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. 1988  Shetty M.S.: Concrete Technology, sixth edition, 2005 S.Chand and Company Ltd..New Delhi Jayanti Rajput, R.K.
Chandak 133-136 26. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Flyash Concrete and Flyash Fiber Reinforced Concrete Abstract: The present Experimental investigation is to study the Mechanical Properties of the Fly ash concrete reinforced with steel fibers.
The concrete composite comprises of steel fibers in different percentages and partial replacement of cement in different proportions. Steel fibers varied from 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of cement and replacement of fly ash varied from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight of cement. Specimens were tested for 28 days, 60 days and 90 days and behaviour of the flyash concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete and fly ash concrete reinforced with steel fibers were studied. When the specimens were tested for 28 days strength, reduction in the Compressive strength, Split tensile strength and Flexural strength were observed, while the 90 days strength of the specimens were found to increase considerably. Based on the test results on control specimens, it was found that improvement in strength of concrete is achieved with a optimum steel fiber content of 1.5% and replacement of cement upto 30% by fly ash.
The investigation programme included the determination of the optimum fiber content which can be provided in the concrete composites. Kannada Songs Download Zip File. Optimum fiber content was determined based on the Compressive strength, Split tensile strength, Flexural strength of the standard specimens.
As the steel fiber percentage selected for our investigation is upto 1.5% by weight, it is suggested that this percentage may be increased to explore the possibility of using more steel fibers in fly ash concrete. Key words: Steel Fiber reinforced concrete, Flyash fiber reinforced concrete, Compressive strength, Split tensile strength, Flexural strength. Reference  A.M. Shende and A.M.
Pande, 'Experimental study and Prediction of Tensile Strength for steel fiber reinforced concrete', International journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, Vol 1, No 4, 2011, ISSN 0976 – 4399. Rathish Kumar and Y.V. Rao, 'Flexural Fatigue characteristics of steel fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete', Architecture and Civil Engineering, Vol 7, No 1, 2009, pp 19 – 33. Khaloo and N. Kim, 'Mechanical Properties of normal to high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete', Cement Concrete and Aggregates, CCAGDP, Vol 18, No 2, 1996, pp 92 – 97.
Shende and A.M. Pande, 'Compared study on steel fiber reinforced cum control concrete under flexural and deflection', International journal of Applied Engineering Research, Dindigul, Vol 1, No 4, 2011, ISSN 0976 – 4259.  Semsi yazici, Gozde inan and Volkan tabak, 'Effect of aspect ratio and volume fraction of steel fiber on Mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC)', Construction and building materials 21, 2007, pp 1250 – 1253. Soutsos, T.T. Lampropoulos, 'Flexural performance of fibre reinforced concrete made with steel and synthetic fibres', Construction and Building Materials 36, 2012, pp 704–710.
 Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Sasan Parniani and Izni Syahrizal Ibrahim, 'Experimental Study on Effects of Steel Fiber Volume on Mechanical Properties of SFRC', Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 214, 2011, pp 144- 148.  Indrajit Patel and Dr. C.D.Modhera, 'Study Basic Properties of Fiber reinforced High volume Flyash Concrete', Journal of Engineering Research and studies, Vol 1, Issue 1, July-Sept 2010, pp 60-70.
Kayali, 'Effect of high volume flyash on Mechanical Properties of Fiber reinforced concrete', Materials and structures / Materiaux et constructions, Vol 37, June 2004, pp 318-327.  Ozkan sengul and Mehmet Ali Tasdemir, 'Compressive strength and rapid chloride Permeability of concrete with ground flyash and slag', Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol 29, No 9, Sept 2009, pp 494- 501, ISSN: 0899-1561. Arunachalam, S. Rooban Chakravarthy 137-145 27.
Physicochemical properties on Non Edible Crude Oil with Its Performance Analysis on Base Fuel (Diesel Fuel) Abstract: Biodiesel is a mixture of fatty acid alkyl esters obtained by the reaction of triglycerides of vegetable or animal origin with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In this work the biodiesel has been taken as non edible type in nature. The problems of this oil are attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of vegetable oils.
Hence, process of transesterification is found to be effective method of reducing viscosity and eliminating operational and durability problems. The comparative performance on the basis of physicochemical property of biodiesel and base fuel is also presented in this work. The advantages effect of biodiesel as compare of base fuel has been also shown. Key words: Biodiesel, No edible Oil, Transerterification, Diesel fuel (base fuel). Reference  Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Blend of Vegetable Oil Esters by-J.Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani. ISSN: 2278-7798 International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) Volume 1, Issue 2, August 2012.  Exhaust Emission Analysis Using Nakthamala Oil Biodiesel Fuel In A C.I Engine With Ann By-R.Sarala.
In International Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Technology withISSN 2249–9695.  Performance, emission and combustion 1 characteristics of an indirect injection (IDI) multi-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine operating on neat jatropha and karanj oils preheated by jacket water.  Biodiesel from Non Edible Oil Seeds: A Renewable Source of Bioenergy byMushtaq Ahmad, Biofuel Lab., Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-iAzam University IslamabadPakistan.  Production of Biodiesel from Non-edible plant oils having high FFA content, by - M.Mathiyazhagan.
April 2011, Volume 2, No.2 International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering.  High Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Feedstock Pre-Treatment Method for Biodiesel Production, by- Godlisten G. Second International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology.  Biodiesel production via non-catalytic SCF method and biodiesel fuel characteristics, by-Ayhan Demirbas.  Use of vegetable oils by transesterification method as C.I. Engines fuels: a technical review, by-Sagar P.Kadu.Journal of Engineering Research and Studies EISSN0976-7916.
 Performance Evaluation, Emission Characteristics and Economic Analysis of Four Non-Edible Straight Vegetable Oils on a Single Cylinder CI Engine, by- M. Navindgi, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, VOL. 2, FEBRUARY 2012 ISSN 1819-6608. Yogendra Prasad Upadhyay, R.
Sharma 146-149 28. Safety Factor on Slope Modeling with Composite Bamboo Pile Reinforcement Abstract: Landslide phenomenon especially on slopes always become interesting issues to be discussed. Last few years, composite bamboo pile is one of the innovative slope reinforcement methods to increase slope stability. Slope modeling with composite bamboo reinforcement was using an experiment box with 1,50 m as length; 1,0 m as width and 1,0 m as height. It used sand soil with fine gradation and composite bamboo pile with various diameters and space between piles.
The load has modeled as a strip footing with continuous increases load by load cell until the limit load reached. The problem that occurred in laboratory has analysed with Finite Element Method. It changed 3D slope modeling to be 2D modeling. Composite bamboo pile has choosen as a new utilization innovation of bamboo to be pile reinforced and a positive value to optimize bamboo local material to be a steel reinforced replacement material. The result of experiment shown that utilizing of pile reinforcement on slope has increased slope stability.
It shown with significally increase of safety factor, bearing capacity improvement and maximum limit load that able to reached on slope Key words: Bearing capacity improvement, Composite bamboo pile, Finite element method, Slope reinforcement, Slope stability Reference  Eng Chew Ang, ' Numerical Investigation of Load Transfer Mechanism in Slopes Reinforced With piles ', Dissertation, Faculty of the Graduate School University of Missouri-Columbia, 2005. Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S.Abdelbaki dan Youssef G. Yousef, ' Analysis of Stabilizing Slopes Using Vertical Piles ', Eleventh International Colloqium on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering ', Egypt, 2005  Ghazi Hassen, Patrick de Buhan, ' Numerical Implementation of a Multiphase Model for the Analysis and Design of Reinforced Slopes ', First Euro Mesiterranean in Advance on Geomaterial and Structure ', Tunisia, 2006. Matsui, ' Methods to Estimate Lateral Force Acting on Stabilizing Piles ', Soils and Foundations, Vol. Matsui dan WP. Hong, ' Design Method for for Stabilizing Piles Against Landslide-One Row of Piles ', Soil and Foundation, Vol.  Jasim M.A.
Et al.,' Single Pile Simulation and Analysis Subjected to Lateral Load ', EJGE, Vo.  X.P., S.M.H.E.
Wang, ' Stability Analysis of Slope Reinforced With Piles Using Limit Analysis Method ', Advances in Earth Structure Research to Practice, 2006.  Mostafa A. El Sawwaf, ' Footing Behavior on Pile and Sheet Plie-Stabilized Sand Slope ', Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol.  Mehmet et al.,'Determination of Lateral Loads on Slope Stabilizing Piles', Pamukkale Universitesi Miihendislik Bilimreli Dergisi, Sayi,Sayfa,194-202, 2009.  Osamu Kusakabe et al.' Bearing Capacity of Slope Under Strip Loads on The Top Surfaces', Soil and Foundation, Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol.21, 1981.
As'ad Munawir, Sri Murni Dewi, Agoes Soehardjono, MD, Yulvi Zaika 150-154 29. Shape Control And Optimization Using Cantilever Beam Abstract: In this study, Analytical work is carried out for static shape control of cantilever beam structure with a use of laminated piezoelectric actuator (LPA). The mathematical modeling of beam element covered with LPA based on Timoshenko beam element theory and linear theory of piezoelectricity has been used. This work shows how number of actuators, actuator size, actuator location on beam and control voltage are depended on the desired shape of beam. Initial condition of beam is taken as horizontal position and three higher order polynomial curves are taken as desired shapes for beam to achieve.
Here error between desired shape and achieved shape is taken as an objective to minimize, size, location and control voltage of actuators taken as variables. Genetic Algorithm for calculating optimum values of all variables is carried out using Matlab tool Key words: – Shape control, Genetic Optimization, Cantilever beam, Reference  Brij N Agrawal and Kirk E Treanor, Shape control of a beam using piezoelectric actuators, Smart Mater. 8 (1999) 729–740. Printed in the UK,  Crawley E F and Anderson E H 1985 Detailed models of piezoelectric actuation of beams J.
1 4–25  E.P. Hadjigeorgioua*, G.E. Stavroulakisb, C.V. Massalasa, Shape control and damage identification of beams using piezoelectric actuation and genetic optimization, International Journal of Engineering Science 44 (2006) 409–421,  H.
Irschik, A review on static and dynamic shape control of structures using piezoelectric actuation, Comput. 26 (2002) 115–128. Tiersten, Linear Piezoelectric Plate Vibration, Plenum Press, New York, 1969. Of adaptive structures, CMS Conference Report, 11th May 2000  H.S. Tzou, Piezoelectric Shells, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1993. Aldraihem, Optimal Size and Location of Piezoelectric Actuator/Sensors: Practical Considerations, journal of guidance, control, and dynamics Vol.
3, May–June 2000,  Rui Ribeiro and Suzana Da Mota Silva, Genetic algorithms for optimal design and control of adaptive structures, CMS Conference Report, 11th May 2000  S daMota Silva1, RRibeiro2, and JMMonteiro2, The application of genetic algorithms for shape control with piezoelectric patches — an experimental comparison, Smart Mater. 13 (2004) 220–226,  Sunar M and Rao S 1999 Recent advances in sensing and control of flexible structures via piezoelectric materials technology Appl. 52 1–16  Y Yu, X N Zhang1 and S L Xie, Optimal shape control of a beam using piezoelectric actuators with low control voltage, Smart Mater. 18 (2009) 095006 (15pp), Hitesh R. Mevada 155-161 30. Experimental Study of Base Isolation System for Small Equipments and Its Evaluation Abstract: A new device of reduction for seismic response using friction force was developed.
In this paper, vibration analysis of a small base isolation system using the device was investigated by excitation experiment using artificial seismic waves. Peak acceleration amplitude on the base isolation system has decreased to 43 - 90% compared to input waves.
And root mean square (RMS) amplitude has decreased to 76 - 94%. Although a spectral peak around 0.5 Hz that is equal to natural frequency of the system was identified when the input waves with low frequency band component were used, it was decreased using friction bearings that generate high friction force. Comparing the response waveforms of the excitation experiment and of the numerical analysis using a linear 2DOF model, it was good agreement. This system is useful for reduction of seismic response. Key words: - Seismic Response, Friction Bearing, Ball, Marble Plate, Natural Frequency, Damping Ratio Reference  M Ozaki, Y. Iwahori, and N.
Ishii, Application of fuzzy theory to writer recognition of Chinese characters, International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, 18(2), 1998, 112-116.  Ooki, N., Mochizuki, S., Ito, A., Abe, F., Ogawa, O., Hosaka, Y., Akiyama, M. And Mochida, Y., Seismic isolation retrofit to preserve the national museum of western art, AIJ Technol. 6, 19-22, 1988 (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Kawamura, S., Sugisaki, R., Ogura, K., Maezawa S., Tanaka, S. And Yajima, A., Seismic isolation retrofit in Japan, Proc. Of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2523, 2000.  Masuzawa, Y. And Hisada, Y., Seismic isolation retrofit of a prefectural government office building, Proc. Of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No.
 Nishizawa, T., Ohno, T. And Ohnishi, M., Summary of study for the best choice of seismic retrofit for Aichi prefectural office building, AIJ Technol. 24, 177-182, 2006 (in Japanese with English abstract).  Yokouchi, H., Nakanishi, S., Adachi, Y. And Aoyama, H., Earthquake response characteristics of an existing R/C building retrofitted with friction dampers, J.
Eng., AIJ, Vol. 628, 947-955, 2008 (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Ozaki, H., Harada, H. And Murakami K., Challenging applications of seismic dampers for retrofit of tall building, Proc. Of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper ID S05-02-008, 2008.
 Myslimaj B., Gamble S., Chin-Quee D. And Breukelman B., Base isolation technologies for seismic protection of museum artifacts, International Association of Museum Facilities Administrators (IAMFA) The 2003 IAMFA Annual Conference in San Francisco, California, September 21-24, 2003.  Tsai M., Wu S., Chang K. And Lee G., Shaking table tests of a scaled bridge model with rolling-type seismic isolation bearings, Engineering Structures, 29, 694–702, 2007. Ueda, S., Akimoto, M., Enomoto, T. And Fujita, T., Study of roller type seismic isolation device for works of art, Trans.
Eng., Series C, Vol. 807 – 812, 2005 (in Japanese with English abstract). Katsumi Kurita, Shigeru Aoki, Yuji Nakanishi, Kazutoshi Tominaga, Mitsuo Kanazawa 166-173 32.
Classification of Multi-date, Tempo-Spectral data using NDVI values Abstract: NASA launched the Earth Observing System's flagship satellite 'Terra,' named for Earth, on December 18, 1999. Terra has been collecting data about Earth's changing climate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a simple graphical indicator that can be used to analyze remote sensing measurements. These indexes can be used to prediction of classes of Remote Sensing (RS) images.
In this paper, we will classify the Terra image on NDVI values of 5 different date's images (Captured by Terra satellite). For classifying images, we will use formulae, which is based on similarity measure. It will compare the clustered image with the Reference image based on the equation, it will classify the image. It is simple process, which can classify much faster. Key words: -Terra, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Remote Sensing, Multi date.
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Design basis are defined in order to obtain a minimum cost filter which also meet the applicable regulations requirements. In this paper presents a hybrid selective active filter configuration to mitigate harmonics, which uses shunt passive and active filters. To obtain the switching signals for the active filter have used instantaneous power theory proposed by H.Akagi. Hybrid selective active filter proposed scheme has been verified through various simulations in MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. Finally, results showing the potentiality of the selective filter controlled for the proposed methods are reported.
Key words: Induction furnace, Hybrid selective active filter, pq –theory. Reference  H.
Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, 'Instantaneous reactive power compensator comprising switching devices without energy storage components,' IEEE Trans. 625–630, 1984. Bhattacharya, P. Cheng, and M. Divan, 'Hybrid solutions for improving passive filter performance in high power applications,' IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 732–747, 1997.
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