Posted by

A History Of Architecture Settings And Rituals 2nd Edition

Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more.

A History Of Architecture Settings And Rituals 2nd Edition

• • • The history of the Catholic Church begins with the teachings of Jesus Christ (c. AD 30), who lived in the (later formed into the Roman province of by the ). The teaches that it is the continuation of the early established by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the to, and the, also known as the Pope, is the sole successor to who was appointed by Jesus in the as head of the church and ministered in Rome. By the end of the 2nd century, bishops began congregating in regional to resolve doctrinal and policy issues. By the 3rd century, the bishop of Rome began to act as a court of appeals for problems that other bishops could not resolve. Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion. In 313, the struggles of the were lessened by the by the.

In 380, under, Catholicism became the of the Roman Empire by the, which would persist until the fall of the, and later, with the, until the. During this time, the period of the, there were considered five primary sees (jurisdictions within the Catholic Church) according to:,,, and, known as the. The battles of preserved the Catholic west, even though Rome itself was ravaged in 850, and Constantinople besieged. In the, already strained relations between the primarily church in the East, and the church in the West, developed into the, partially due to conflicts over. The, and the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach.

In the, in response to the, the Church engaged in a process of substantial reform and renewal known as the. In subsequent centuries, Catholicism spread widely across the world despite experiencing a reduction in its hold on European populations due to the growth of and also because of during and after the. The in the 1960s introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the four centuries before. Western depiction of the, painted by, 1732 Catholics believe that the Catholic Church was founded.

The records Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the, and. The Catholic Church teaches that the coming of the upon the apostles, in an event known as, signaled the beginning of the public ministry of the Church. Catholics hold that Saint Peter was Rome's first bishop and the consecrator of as its next bishop, thus starting the unbroken line which includes the current pontiff,.

That is, the Catholic Church considers the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, to be the successor to Saint Peter. In the account of the found in the, Christ designates Peter as the 'rock' upon which Christ's church will be built. While some scholars do state Peter was the first Bishop of Rome, others say that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome or even on his ever having been in Rome.

Many scholars hold that a church structure of plural presbyters/bishops persisted in Rome until the mid-2nd century, when the structure of a single bishop and plural presbyters was adopted, and that later writers retrospectively applied the term 'bishop of Rome' to the most prominent members of the clergy in the earlier period and also to Peter himself. On this basis, and question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy, and says that, while it is anachronistic to speak of Peter in terms of local bishop of Rome, Christians of that period would have looked on Peter as having 'roles that would contribute in an essential way to the development of the role of the papacy in the subsequent church'. These roles, Brown says, 'contributed enormously to seeing the bishop of Rome, the bishop of the city where Peter died, and where Paul witnessed to the truth of Christ, as the successor of Peter in care for the church universal'. Early organization [ ] Conditions in the Roman Empire facilitated the spread of new ideas.

The empire's well-defined network of roads and waterways allowed easier travel, while the made it safe to travel from one region to another. The government had encouraged inhabitants, especially those in urban areas, to learn Greek, and the common language allowed ideas to be more easily expressed and understood. Jesus's apostles gained converts in around the Mediterranean Sea, and over 40 Christian communities had been established by 100. Although most of these were in the Roman Empire, notable Christian communities were also established in, and along the Indian. The new religion was most successful in urban areas, spreading first among slaves and people of low social standing, and then among aristocratic women.

At first, Christians continued to worship alongside Jewish believers, which historians refer to as, but within twenty years of Jesus's death, was being regarded as the primary day of worship. As preachers such as began converting, to establish itself as a separate religion, though the issue of is still debated today. To resolve doctrinal differences among the competing factions within the Church, in or around the year 50, the apostles convened the first Church council, the. This council affirmed that Gentiles could become Christians without adopting all of the. Growing tensions soon led to a starker separation that was virtually complete by the time Christians refused to join in the of 132, however some groups of Christians retained elements of Jewish practice. According to some historians and scholars The early Christian Church was very loosely organized, resulting in diverse interpretations of Christian beliefs. In part to ensure a greater consistency in their teachings, by the end of the 2nd century Christian communities had evolved a more structured hierarchy, with a central bishop having authority over the clergy in his city, leading to the development of the.

The organization of the Church began to mimic that of the Empire; bishops in politically important cities exerted greater authority over bishops in nearby cities. The churches in Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome held the highest positions. Beginning in the 2nd century, bishops often congregated in regional to resolve doctrinal and policy issues. Duffy claims that by the 3rd century, the bishop of Rome began to act as a court of appeals for problems that other bishops could not resolve.

Doctrine was further refined by a series of influential theologians and teachers, known collectively as the. From the year 100 onward, teachers like and defined Catholic teaching in stark opposition to other things, such as.

In the first few centuries of its existence, the Church formed its teachings and traditions into a systematic whole under the influence of theological such as, and. Persecutions [ ] Unlike most religions in the Roman Empire, Christianity required its adherents to renounce all other gods, a practice adopted from Judaism, see. Christians' refusal to join pagan celebrations meant they were unable to participate in much of public life, which caused non-Christians–including government authorities–to fear that the Christians were angering the gods and thereby threatening the peace and prosperity of the Empire. In addition, the peculiar intimacy of Christian society and its secrecy about its religious practices spawned rumors that Christians were guilty of incest and cannibalism; the resulting persecutions, although usually local and sporadic, were a defining feature of Christian self-understanding until Christianity was legalized in the 4th century. A series of more centrally organized emerged in the late 3rd century, when emperors decreed that the Empire's military, political, and economic crises were caused by angry gods. All residents were ordered to give sacrifices or be punished.

Jews were exempted as long as they paid the. Estimates of the number of Christians who were executed ranges from a few hundred to 50,000. Many fled or renounced their beliefs.

Disagreements over what role, if any, these should have in the Church led to the and schisms. Relations between the Church and the Empire were not consistent: ' wanted to have Christ placed in the Pantheon and refused first of all to persecute the Christians. Later on his attitude changed. [-] How are we to explain the fact that men like and above all should have so relentlessly persecuted the Christians? On the other hand and other villainous emperors rather favoured them.' In spite of these persecutions, efforts persisted, leading to the which legalized Christianity in 313.

By 380, Christianity had become the of the Roman Empire. Religious philosopher wrote: 'By the time of Constantine, the state of apocalyptic expectation must have worn rather thin. [The imminent coming of Christ, expectation of the Last Day - constituted 'a very great social danger.' ] Besides, the spirit of the old law, so widely separated from all mysticism, was not so very different from the Roman spirit itself. Rome could come to terms with the.'

Late antiquity [ ]. Emperor established the rights of the Church in the year 315. When became emperor of the in 312, he attributed his victory to the Christian God.

Many soldiers in his army were Christians, and his army was his base of power. With, (), he issued the which mandated toleration of all religions in the empire. The edict had little effect on the attitudes of the people. New laws were crafted to codify some Christian beliefs and practices. Constantine's biggest effect on Christianity was his patronage. He gave large gifts of land and money to the Church and offered tax exemptions and other special legal status to Church property and personnel. These gifts and later ones combined to make the Church the largest landowner in the West by the 6th century.

Many of these gifts were funded through severe taxation of pagan cults. Some pagan cults were forced to disband for lack of funds; when this happened the Church took over the cult's previous role of caring for the poor. In a reflection of their increased standing in the Empire, clergy began to adopt the dress of the royal household, including the. During Constantine's reign, approximately half of those who identified themselves as Christian did not subscribe to the mainstream version of the faith. Constantine feared that disunity would displease God and lead to trouble for the Empire, so he took military and judicial measures to eliminate some sects. To resolve other disputes, Constantine began the practice of calling to determine binding interpretations of Church doctrine. Decisions made at the (325) about the divinity of Christ led to a schism; the new religion, flourished outside the Roman Empire.

Partially to distinguish themselves from Arians, Catholic became more prominent. This led to further schisms. In 380, mainstream Christianity–as opposed to –became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Christianity became more associated with the Empire, resulting in persecution for Christians living outside of the empire, as their rulers feared Christians would revolt in favor of the Emperor. In 385, this new legal authority of the Church resulted in the first use of capital punishment being pronounced as a sentence upon a Christian 'heretic', namely.

During this period, the Bible as it has come down to the 21st century was first officially laid out in Church Councils or Synods. Prior to these Councils or Synods, the Bible had already reached a form that was nearly identical to the form in which it is now found. According to some accounts, in 382 the first officially recognized the, listing the accepted books of the and, and in 391 the Latin translation of the Bible was made.

Other accounts list the Council of Carthage of 397 as the Council that finalized the Biblical canon as it is known today. The in 431 clarified the nature of Jesus', declaring that he was. Two decades later, the solidified Roman papal primacy which added to continuing breakdown in relations between Rome and Constantinople, the seat of the.

Corel All Movie Guide Download. Also sparked were the disagreements over the precise nature of the incarnation of Jesus which led to the first of the various breaking away from the Catholic Church. Middle Ages [ ].

Father of Western monasticism and author of. Detail from fresco by, c. 1437–46. In 530, wrote his as a practical guide for community life. Its message spread to monasteries throughout Europe. Monasteries became major conduits of civilization, preserving craft and artistic skills while maintaining intellectual culture within their schools, and libraries.

They functioned as agricultural, economic and production centers as well as a focus for spiritual life. During this period the Visigoths and Lombards moved away from Arianism for Catholicism. Played a notable role in these conversions and dramatically reformed the ecclesiastical structures and administration which then launched renewed missionary efforts. Missionaries such as, who was sent from Rome to begin the conversion of the, and, coming the other way in the, Saints,,, and many others took Christianity into northern Europe and spread Catholicism among the, and, and reached the and other in later centuries. The of 664, though not as decisive as sometimes claimed, was an important moment in the reintegration of the of the into the Roman hierarchy, after having been effectively cut off from contact with Rome by the pagan invaders. In the early 8th century, became a major source of conflict between the Eastern and Western parts of the Church.

Emperors forbade the creation and veneration of religious images, as violations of. Other major religions in the East such as and had similar prohibitions. Vehemently disagreed. A new siding with the pope, called for an. In 787, the fathers of the 'warmly received the papal delegates and his message'.

At the conclusion, 300 bishops, who were led by the representatives of 'adopted the Pope's teaching', in favor of icons. With the coronation of by in 800, his new title as Patricius Romanorum, and the handing over of the keys to the, the papacy had acquired a new protector in the West. This freed the pontiffs to some degree from the power of the emperor in Constantinople but also led to a, because the emperors and interpreted themselves as the true descendants of the Roman Empire dating back to the beginnings of the Church.

Had refused to recognize, who in turn had attacked the pope as a heretic, because he kept the in the creed, which referred to the emanating from God the Father and the Son. The papacy was strengthened through this new alliance, which in the long term created a new problem for the Popes, when in the succeeding emperors sought to appoint bishops and even future popes.

After the disintegration of the and repeated incursions of Islamic forces into Italy, the papacy, without any protection, entered a phase of major weakness. High Middle Ages [ ]. See also: The of monasteries that began in 910 placed abbots under the direct control of the pope rather than the secular control of feudal lords, thus eliminating a major source of corruption. This sparked a great monastic renewal. Monasteries, convents and cathedrals still operated virtually all schools and libraries, and often functioned as credit establishments promoting.

After 1100, some older split into lower and higher schools for advanced learning. First in, then at and, many of these higher schools developed into and became the direct ancestors of modern Western institutions of learning. It was here where notable theologians worked to explain the connection between human experience and faith. The most notable of these theologians,, produced, a key intellectual achievement in its synthesis of thought and the Gospel. Monastic contributions to included the teaching of metallurgy, the introduction of new crops, the invention of and the creation and preservation of literature. During the 11th century, the permanently divided Christianity.

It arose over a dispute on whether Constantinople or Rome held jurisdiction over the church in Sicily and led to mutual excommunications in 1054. The Western (Latin) branch of Christianity has since become known as the Catholic Church, while the Eastern (Greek) branch became known as the. The (1274) and the (1439) both failed to heal the schism.

Some have since reunited with the Catholic Church, and others claim never to have been out of communion with the pope. Officially, the two churches remain in schism, although in 1965.

The 11th century saw the between Emperor and Pope over the right to make church appointments, the first major phase of the struggle between. The Papacy were the initial victors, but as Italians divided between in factions that were often passed down through families or states until the end of, the dispute gradually weakened the Papacy, not least by drawing it into politics. The Church also attempted to control, or exact a price for, most marriages among the great by prohibiting, in 1059, marriages involving (blood kin) and (kin by marriage) to the seventh degree of relationship. Under these rules, almost all great marriages required a dispensation. The rules were relaxed to the fourth degree in 1215 (now only the first degree is prohibited by the Church - a man cannot marry his stepdaughter, for example). At the (1095), where he preached the; later of c. 1490 launched the in 1095 when he received an appeal from to help ward off a Turkish invasion.

Urban further believed that a Crusade might help bring about reconciliation with Eastern Christianity. Fueled by reports of Muslim atrocities against Christians, the series of military campaigns known as the began in 1096. They were intended to return the to Christian control. The goal was not permanently realized, and episodes of brutality committed by the armies of both sides left a legacy of mutual distrust between Muslims and Western and Eastern Christians. During the left Eastern Christians embittered, despite the fact that had expressly forbidden any such attack.

In 2001, apologized to the Orthodox Christians for the sins of Catholics including the sacking of Constantinople in 1204. Two new orders of architecture emerged from the Church of this era. The earlier style combined massive walls, rounded arches and ceilings of masonry. To compensate for the absence of large windows, interiors were brightly painted with scenes from the Bible and the lives of the saints.

Later, the marked a new trend in cathedral building when it utilized. This style, with its large windows and high, pointed arches, improved lighting and geometric harmony in a manner that was intended to direct the worshiper's mind to God who 'orders all things'. In other developments, the 12th century saw the founding of eight new, many of them functioning as of the Crusades. Monk exerted great influence over the new orders and produced reforms to ensure purity of purpose.

His influence led to begin reforms that would lead to the establishment of. In the following century, new were founded by and which brought into urban settings. 12th century France witnessed the growth of in. It was in connection with the struggle against this heresy that the Inquisition originated.

After the Cathars were accused of murdering a in 1208, declared the. Abuses committed during the crusade caused Innocent III to informally institute the first papal inquisition to prevent future massacres and root out the remaining Cathars. Formalized under, this executed an average of three people per year for heresy at its height. Over time, other were launched by the Church or secular rulers to prosecute heretics, to respond to the threat of invasion or for political purposes. The accused were encouraged to recant their heresy and those who did not could be punished by penance, fines, imprisonment.

Part of a on of the. • • • A growing sense of church-state conflicts marked the 14th century.

To escape instability in Rome, in 1309 became the first of seven popes to reside in the fortified city of in southern France during a period known as the. The papacy returned to Rome in 1378 at the urging of and others who felt the should be in the Roman church. With the death of later that year, the was disputed between supporters of Italian and French-backed candidates leading to the.

For 38 years, separate claimants to the papal throne sat in Rome and Avignon. Efforts at resolution further complicated the issue when a third compromise pope was elected in 1409. The matter was finally resolved in 1417 at the where the cardinals called upon all three claimants to the papal throne to resign, and held a new election naming pope. Renaissance and reforms [ ] Discoveries and missionaries [ ].

See also:,, and Through the late 15th and early 16th centuries, European missionaries and explorers spread Catholicism to the,, and., in the, awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to and. Under the patronato system, state authorities controlled clerical appointments and no direct contact was allowed with the Vatican. On December 1511, the Dominican friar openly rebuked the Spanish authorities governing for their mistreatment of the American natives, telling them '. you are in mortal sin. for the cruelty and tyranny you use in dealing with these innocent people'. Enacted the and Valladolid in response. Enforcement was lax, and while some blame the Church for not doing enough to liberate the Indians, others point to the Church as the only voice raised on behalf of indigenous peoples. The issue resulted in a crisis of conscience in 16th-century Spain.

An outpouring of self-criticism and philosophical reflection among Catholic theologians, most notably, led to debate on the nature of and the birth of modern international law. In 1521, through the leadership and preaching of the Portuguese explorer, the first Catholics were baptized in what became the first Christian nation in Southeast Asia, the. The following year, missionaries arrived in what is now, and sought to convert the Indians and to provide for their well-being by establishing schools and hospitals. They taught the Indians better farming methods, and easier ways of weaving and making pottery. Because some people questioned whether the Indians were truly human and deserved, in the papal bull Veritas Ipsa or (1537) confirmed that the Indians were deserving people. Afterward, the conversion effort gained momentum.

Over the next 150 years, the missions expanded into. The native people were legally defined as children, and priests took on a paternalistic role, often enforced with corporal punishment. Elsewhere, in India, Portuguese missionaries and the Spanish Jesuit evangelized among non-Christians and a Christian community which claimed to have been established.

England, one of hundreds of European monasteries destroyed during the Reformation Renaissance Church [ ] In Europe, the marked a period of renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. It also brought a re-examination of accepted beliefs.

Cathedrals and churches had long served as picture books and art galleries for millions of the uneducated. The stained glass windows,, statues, paintings and panels retold the stories of the saints and of biblical characters. The Church sponsored great Renaissance artists like and, who created some of the world's most famous artworks.

The acceptance of humanism had its effects on the Church, which embraced it as well. In 1509, a well known scholar of the age,, wrote, a work which captured a widely held unease about corruption in the Church. The itself was questioned by expressed in the councils of and the.

Real reforms during these and the were attempted several times but thwarted. They were seen as necessary but did not succeed in large measure because of internal feuds within the Church, ongoing conflicts with the Ottoman Empire and and the and practiced in the Renaissance Church of the 15th and early 16th centuries. As a result, rich, powerful and worldly men like Roderigo () were able to win election to the papacy. Reformation era wars [ ] The issued some but only minor reforms in March 1517. A few months later, on October 31, 1517, posted his in public, hoping to spark debate. His theses protested key points of Catholic as well as the sale of.,, and others also criticized Catholic teachings. These challenges, supported by powerful political forces in the region, developed into the.

In Germany, the Reformation led to war between the Protestant and the Catholic Emperor. The first nine-year war ended in 1555 but continued tensions produced a far graver conflict, the, which broke out in 1618. In France, a series of conflicts termed the was fought from 1562 to 1598 between the and the forces of the.

A series of popes sided with and became financial supporters of the Catholic League. This ended under, who hesitantly accepted King 1598, which granted civil and to Protestants. England [ ] The was ostensibly based on 's desire for annulment of his marriage with, and was initially more of a political, and later a theological dispute. The made the English monarch head of the English church thereby establishing the. Then, beginning in 1536, some 825 monasteries throughout England, and were and Catholic churches were confiscated. When he died in 1547 all monasteries, friaries, convents of nuns and shrines were destroyed or dissolved. Reunited the Church of England with Rome and, against the advice of the Spanish ambassador, persecuted Protestants during the.

After some provocation, the following monarch, enforced the Act of Supremacy. This prevented Catholics from becoming members of professions, holding public office, voting or educating their children., who reigned much longer, then surpassed the Marian persecutions and persisted under subsequent English monarchs. Were also enacted in Ireland but were less effective than in England. In part because the Irish people associated Catholicism with nationhood and national identity, they resisted persistent English efforts to eliminate the Catholic Church.

—adjoining, —exemplifies the style. Council of Trent [ ] Historian, in his book The Reformation, A History noted that through all the slaughter of the Reformation era emerged the valuable concept of religious toleration and an improved Catholic Church which responded to doctrinal challenges and abuses highlighted by the Reformation at the (1545–1563). The council became the driving-force of the, and reaffirmed central Catholic doctrines such as, and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation. It also reformed many other areas of importance to the Church, most importantly by improving the education of the clergy and consolidating the central jurisdiction of the. The criticisms of the Reformation were among factors that sparked new including the, and, some of which became the great missionary orders of later years. Spiritual renewal and reform were inspired by many new saints like, and whose writings spawned distinct schools of spirituality within the Church (,, ), etc. Improvement to the education of the laity was another positive effect of the era, with a proliferation of secondary schools reinvigorating higher studies such as history, philosophy and theology.

To popularize Counter-Reformation teachings, the Church encouraged the style in art, music and architecture. Baroque religious expression was stirring and emotional, created to stimulate religious fervor. Elsewhere, Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier introduced the, and by the end of the 16th century tens of thousands of Japanese adhered. Church growth came to a halt in 1597 under the Shogun who, in an effort to isolate the country from foreign influences, launched a severe persecution of Christians. Japanese were forbidden to leave the country and Europeans were forbidden to enter.

Despite this, a minority Christian population survived into the 19th century. Baroque, Enlightenment and revolutions [ ]. See also: and Marian devotions [ ] The generated a revival of religious life and in the Catholic Church. During the, the Church had defended its against Protestant views.

At the same time, the Catholic world was engaged in ongoing against Turkey which were fought and won under the auspices of the. The victory at the was accredited to her 'and signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions, focusing especially on Mary, the and Earth and her powerful role as of many graces'. The, an elite group, and the based their activities on a virtuous life, free of. And ruled in 1617 and 1622 to be inadmissible to state, that the virgin was conceived non-immaculate.

Supporting the belief that she was born without original sin, through the intended protection of God's grace (aka Immaculate Conception). [ ] declared in 1661, that the soul of Mary was free from. Ordered the feast of the for the whole Church in 1708. The feast of the was introduced in 1716, the feast of the Seven Sorrows in 1727. The prayer was strongly supported by in 1724 and by in 1742. Popular Marian piety was even more colourful and varied than ever before: Numerous Marian, Marian Salve, new Marian, Marian plays, Marian, Marian. Marian, today mostly defunct, had millions of members.

After centuries of French opposition, was beatified by in 1956 Enlightenment secularism [ ] The constituted a new challenge of the Church. Unlike the, which questioned certain Christian doctrines, the enlightenment questioned Christianity as a whole. Generally, it elevated human above divine and down-graded religious authorities such as the based on it. Parallel the Church attempted to fend off and, ideologies which threatened the papacy and structure of the Church. Toward the latter part of the 17th century, viewed the increasing Turkish attacks against Europe, which were supported by France, as the major threat for the Church. He built a - coalition for the Turkish defeat at Vienna in 1683.

Scholars have called him a saintly pope because he reformed abuses by the Church, including, and the lavish papal expenditures that had caused him to inherit a papal debt of 50,000,000. By eliminating certain honorary posts and introducing new fiscal policies, Innocent XI was able to regain control of the church's finances. In France, the Church battled and, which supported, and rejected papal primacy, demanding special concessions for the Church in France. This weakened the Church's ability to respond to thinkers such as, who challenged fundamental doctrines of the Church. In 1685 gallicanist King of France issued the, ending a century of religious toleration. France forced Catholic theologians to support and deny. The king threatened with a and a military take-over of the Papal state.

The French State used Gallicanism to gain control of virtually all major Church appointments as well as many of the Church's properties. State authority over the Church became popular in other countries as well.

In Belgium and Germany, Gallicanism appeared in the form of, which rejected papal prerogatives in an equal fashion. Emperor of Austria (1780–1790) practiced by regulating Church life, appointments, and massive confiscation of Church properties. Church in North America [ ] In what is now the Western United States, the Catholic Church expanded its missionary activity but, until the 19th century, had to work in conjunction with the crown and military., the Franciscan priest in charge of this effort, founded a series of missions and presidios in California which became important economic, political, and religious institutions. These missions brought grain, cattle and a new political and religious order to the Indian tribes of California. Coastal and overland routes were established from Mexico City and mission outposts in Texas and New Mexico that resulted 13 major California missions by 1781. European visitors brought new diseases that killed off a third of the native population.

Mexico shut down the missions in the 1820s and sold off the lands. Only in the 19th century, after the breakdown of most Spanish and Portuguese colonies, was the Vatican able to take charge of Catholic missionary activities through its organization. Church in South America [ ] During this period the Church faced colonial abuses from the Portuguese and Spanish governments. In South America, the Jesuits protected native peoples from enslavement by establishing semi-independent settlements called., challenging Spanish and Portuguese sovereignty, appointed his own candidates as bishops in the colonies, condemned slavery and the in 1839 (papal bull ), and approved the ordination of native clergy in spite of government racism. Jesuits [ ] Jesuits in India [ ] has a tradition of establishing the faith in Kerala.

The community was very small until the Jesuit (1502–1552) began missionary work. (1577–1656), a missionary to Southern India followed in his path. He pioneered, adopting many customs which were not, in his opinion, contrary to. He lived like a Brahmin, learned, and presented Christianity as a part of Indian beliefs, not identical with the Portuguese culture of the colonialists. He permitted the use of all customs, which in his view did not directly contradict Christian teachings. By 1640 there were 40 000 Christians in alone. In 1632, Pope gave permission for this approach.

But strong anti-Jesuit sentiments in Portugal, France, and even in Rome, resulted in a reversal. This ended the successful Catholic missions in India. On September 12, 1744, forbade the so-called in India, with the result, that leading Indian casts who wanted to adhere to their traditional cultures, turned away from the Catholic Church. French Revolution [ ].

See also: and The anti-clericalism of the saw the wholesale nationalisation of church property and attempts to establish a state-run church. Large numbers of priests refused to take an oath of compliance to the, leading to the Church being outlawed and replaced by a new religion of the worship of 'Reason' but it never gained popularity.

In this period, all monasteries were destroyed, 30,000 priests were exiled and hundreds more were killed. When sided against the revolution in the, invaded Italy. The 82-year-old pope was taken as a prisoner to France in February 1799 and soon died.

To win popular support for his rule, Napoleon re-established the Catholic Church in France through the. The church lands were never returned, however the priests and other religious were given salaries by the government, which maintained church properties through tax revenues. Catholics were allowed to continue some of their schools.

The end of the Napoleonic wars, signaled by the, brought Catholic revival and the return of the Papal States to the pope; the Jesuits were restored. Free Download Sad Songs Of Attaullah Khan Esakhelvi. 19th century France [ ] France remained basically Catholic.

The census of 1872 counted 36 million people, of whom 35.4 million were listed as Catholics, 600,000 as Protestants, 50,000 as Jews and 80,000 as freethinkers The Revolution failed to destroy the Catholic Church, and Napoleon's concordat of 1801 restored its status. The return of the Bourbons in 1814 brought back many rich nobles and landowners who supported the Church, seeing it as a bastion of conservatism and monarchism. However the monasteries with their vast land holdings and political power were gone; much of the land had been sold to urban entrepreneurs who lacked historic connections to the land and the peasants. Few new priests were trained in the 1790-1814 period, and many left the church. The result was that the number of parish clergy plunged from 60,000 in 1790 to 25,000 in 1815, many of them elderly. Entire regions, especially around, were left with few priests. On the other hand, some traditional regions held fast to the faith, led by local nobles and historic families.

The comeback was slow—very slow in the larger cities and industrial areas. With systematic missionary work and a new emphasis on liturgy and devotions to the Virgin Mary, plus support from Napoleon III, there was a comeback. In 1870 there were 56,500 priests, representing a much younger and more dynamic force in the villages and towns, with a thick network of schools, charities and lay organizations. Conservative Catholics held control of the national government, 1820-1830, but most often played secondary political roles or had to fight the assault from republicans, liberals, socialists and seculars. Third Republic 1870-1940 [ ] Throughout the lifetime of the Third Republic there were battles over the status of the Catholic Church. The French clergy and bishops were closely associated with the Monarchists and many of its hierarchy were from noble families.

Republicans were based in the anticlerical middle class who saw the Church's alliance with the monarchists as a political threat to republicanism, and a threat to the modern spirit of progress. The Republicans detested the church for its political and class affiliations; for them, the church represented outmoded traditions, superstition and monarchism. The Republicans were strengthened by Protestant and Jewish support. Numerous laws were passed to weaken the Catholic Church.

In 1879, priests were excluded from the administrative committees of hospitals and of boards of charity; in 1880, new measures were directed against the religious congregations; from 1880 to 1890 came the substitution of lay women for nuns in many hospitals. Napoleon's 1801 Concordat continued in operation but in 1881, the government cut off salaries to priests it disliked. The 1882 school laws of Republican set up a national system of public schools that taught strict puritanical morality but no religion.

For a while privately funded Catholic schools were tolerated. Civil marriage became compulsory, divorce was introduced and chaplains were removed from the army. When became pope in 1878 he tried to calm Church-State relations. In 1884 he told French bishops not to act in a hostile manner to the State. In 1892 he issued an encyclical advising French Catholics to rally to the Republic and defend the Church by participating in Republican politics. This attempt at improving the relationship failed.

Deep-rooted suspicions remained on both sides and were inflamed by the. Catholics were for the most part anti-dreyfusard. The Assumptionists published anti-Semitic and anti-republican articles in their journal La Croix.

This infuriated Republican politicians, who were eager to take revenge. Often they worked in alliance with Masonic lodges. The (1899–1902) and the fought with the Vatican over the appointment of bishops. Chaplains were removed from naval and military hospitals (1903–04), and soldiers were ordered not to frequent Catholic clubs (1904). Combes as Prime Minister in 1902, was determined to thoroughly defeat Catholicism. He closed down all parochial schools in France.

Then he had parliament reject authorisation of all religious orders. This meant that all fifty four orders were dissolved and about 20,000 members immediately left France, many for Spain. In All Church property was confiscated. Public worship was given over to associations of Catholic laymen who controlled access to churches.

In practise, Masses and rituals continued. The Church was badly hurt and lost half its priests. In the long run, however, it gained autonomy—for the State no longer had a voice in choosing bishops and Gallicanism was dead. See also:, and First Vatican Council [ ] Before the council, in 1854 with the support of the overwhelming majority of Catholic, whom he had consulted between 1851–1853, proclaimed the of the. Eight years earlier, in 1846, the Pope had granted the unanimous wish of the bishops from the United States, and declared the Immaculata the patron of the USA. During, some 108 council fathers requested to add the words 'Immaculate Virgin' to the. Some fathers requested, the dogma of the Immaculate Conception to be included in the of the Church, which was opposed by Pius IX Many Catholics wished the dogmatization of Papal and the by the ecumenical council.

During, nine mariological petitions favoured a possible assumption dogma, which however was strongly opposed by some council fathers, especially from. In 1870, the affirmed the doctrine of when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements. Controversy over this and other issues resulted in a very small breakaway movement called the. Social teachings [ ]. The Church was slow to react to the growing industrialization and impoverishment of workers, trying first to remediate the situation with increased charity.

In 1891 issued in which the Church defined the dignity and rights of industrial workers. The brought many concerns about the deteriorating working and living conditions of urban workers. Influenced by the German Bishop, in 1891 published the encyclical, which set in context in terms that rejected socialism but advocated the regulation of working conditions.

Rerum novarum argued for the establishment of a living wage and the right of workers to form. Was issued by, on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum novarum. Unlike Leo, who addressed mainly the condition of workers, Pius XI concentrated on the ethical implications of the social and economic order.

He called for the reconstruction of the social order based on the principle of and. He noted major dangers for human freedom and dignity, arising from unrestrained capitalism and totalitarian communism. The social teachings of repeat these teachings, and apply them in greater detail not only to workers and owners of capital, but also to other professions such as,, house-wives,,,, and all aspects of life including the. Going beyond Pius XI, he also defined social teachings in the areas of,,,,, and. There is virtually no social issue, which Pius XII did not address and relate to the Christian faith. He was called 'the Pope of Technology, for his willingness and ability to examine the social implications of technological advances.

The dominant concern was the continued rights and dignity of the individual. With the beginning of the at the end of his pontificate, Pius XII explored the social implications of space exploration and satellites on the social fabric of humanity asking for a new sense of community and solidarity in light of existing on subsidiarity. Role of women's institutes [ ].

Catholic Sisters and the leper children of Hawaii in 1886. Catholic women like St played a central role in developing and running of many the modern world's education and health care systems.

Catholic women have played a prominent role in providing education and health services in keeping with Catholic social teaching. Ancient orders like the had engaged in social work for centuries. The 19th century saw a new flowering of institutes for women, dedicated to the provision of health and education services - of these the, and became among the largest Catholic women's religious institutes of all.

The was founded by in in 1831, and her nuns went on to establish hospitals and schools across the world. The was founded in the mid-19th century by Saint near Rennes, France, to care for the many impoverished elderly who lined the streets of French towns and cities. In Britain's Australian colonies, Australia's first canonized Saint,, co-founded the as an educative religious institute for the poor in 1866, going on to establish schools, orphanages and refuges for the needy.

In 1872, the (also called Daughters of Mary Help of Christians) was founded. The teaching order was to become the modern world's largest institute for women, with around 14,000 members in 2012. Saint opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, instituting cleanliness standards which influenced the development of America's modern hospital system. Also in the United States, Saint founded to assist African and Native Americans. Mariology [ ]. Madonna and Child, by Popes have always highlighted the inner link between the as and the full acceptance of Jesus Christ as.

Since the 19th century, they were highly important for the development of to explain the through their decisions not only in the area of Marian beliefs () but also Marian practices and. Before the 19th century, Popes promulgated Marian veneration by authorizing new Marian,, initiatives, the acceptance and support of Marian congregations. Since the 19th century, Popes begin to use encyclicals more frequently. Thus, the issued eleven Marian encyclicals. Recent Popes promulgated the veneration of the Blessed Virgin with two, the in 1854 and the in 1950. Pius XII also promulgated the new feast celebrating Mary as and he introduced the first ever in 1954, a second one was proclaimed by., and facilitated the veneration of such as in and.

Later Popes such from to promoted the visit to ( in 2007 and 2008). The highlighted the importance of Marian veneration in. During the Council, proclaimed Mary to be the.

Anti-clericalism [ ]. See also: The 20th century saw the rise of various politically and governments. The 1926 separating church and state in Mexico led to the in which over 3,000 priests were exiled or assassinated, churches desecrated, services mocked, nuns raped and captured priests shot.

In the Soviet Union following the 1917, persecution of the Church and Catholics continued well into the 1930s. In addition to the execution and exiling of clerics, monks and laymen, the confiscation of religious implements and closure of churches was common.

During the 1936–39, the Catholic hierarchy supported 's rebel forces against the government, citing directed against the Church. The Church had been an active element in the polarising politics of the years preceding the Civil War. Referred to these three countries as a 'terrible triangle' and the failure to protest in Europe and the United States as a 'conspiracy of silence'. [ ] Dictatorships [ ] Italy [ ] Pope aimed to end the long breach between the papacy and the Italian government and to gain recognition once more of the sovereign independence of the Holy See. Most of the Papal States had been seized by the armies of King (1861–1878) in 1860 seeking. Rome itself was seized by force in 1870 and the pope became the '.' The Italian government's policies had always been anti-clerical until the First World War, when some compromises were reached.

Boundary map of To bolster his own dictatorial Fascist regime, was also eager for an agreement. Agreement was reached in 1929 with the, which helped both sides. According to the terms of the first treaty, was given sovereignty as an independent nation in return for the Vatican relinquishing its claim to the former territories of the Papal States. Pius XI thus became a head of a tiny state with its own territory, army.

Radio station, and diplomatic representation. The Concordat of 1929 made Catholicism the sole religion of Italy (although other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to priests and bishops, recognized church marriages (previously couples had to have a civil ceremony), and brought religious instruction into the public schools. In turn the bishops swore allegiance to the Italian state, which had a veto power over their selection. The Church was not officially obligated to support the Fascist regime; the strong differences remained but the seething hostility ended. The Church especially endorsed foreign policies such as support for the anti-Communist side in the Spanish Civil War, and support for the conquest of Ethiopia. Friction continued over the Catholic Action youth network, which Mussolini wanted to merge into his Fascist youth group.

A compromise was reached with only the Fascists allowed to sponsor sports teams. Italy paid the Vatican 1750 million lira (about $100 million) for the seizures of church property since 1860. Pius XI invested the money in the stock markets and real estate. To manage these investments, the Pope appointed the lay-person, who through shrewd investing in stocks, gold, and futures markets, significantly increased the Catholic Church's financial holdings. The income largely paid for the upkeep of the expensive-to-maintain stock of historic buildings in the Vatican which previously had been maintained through funds raised from the up until 1870. The Vatican's relationship with Mussolini's government deteriorated drastically after 1930 as Mussolini's totalitarian ambitions began to impinge more and more on the autonomy of the Church.

For example, the Fascists tried to absorb the Church's youth groups. In response Pius XI issued the encyclical ('We Have No Need)') in 1931. It denounced the regime's persecution of the church in Italy and condemned 'pagan worship of the State.' Austria and Nazi Germany [ ]. Signing of the on 20 July 1933. From left to right: German prelate, German Vice-Chancellor, representing Germany, Monsignor,, Monsignor, German ambassador. The Vatican supported the Christian Socialists in Austria, a country with a majority Catholic population but a powerful secular element.

Pope Pius XI favored the regime of (1932–34), who wanted to remold society based on papal encyclicals. Dollfuss suppressed the anti-clerical elements and the socialists, but was assassinated by the Austrian Nazis in 1934. His successor (1934–38) was also pro-Catholic and received Vatican support. Germany annexed Austria in 1938 and imposed its own policies.

Pius XI was prepared to negotiate concordats with any country that was willing to do so, thinking that written treaties were the best way to protect the Church's rights against governments increasingly inclined to interfere in such matters. Twelve concordats were signed during his reign with various types of governments, including some German state governments. When became Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933 and asked for a concordat, Pius XI accepted. The of 1933 included guarantees of liberty for the, independence for Catholic organisations and youth groups, and religious teaching in schools. Nazi ideology was spearheaded by and the. In the struggle for total control over German minds and bodies, the SS developed an anti-religious agenda.

No Catholic or Protestant chaplains were allowed in its units (although they were allowed in the regular army). Himmler established a special unit to identify and eliminate Catholic influences. The SS decided the German Catholic Church was a serious threat to its hegemony and while it was too strong to be abolished it was partly stripped of its influence, for example by closing its youth clubs and publications. After repeated violations of the Concordat, Pope Pius XI issued the 1937 encyclical which publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of the Church and their ideology of neopaganism and racial superiority. World War II [ ] After the Second World War began in September 1939, the Church condemned the invasion of Poland and subsequent 1940 Nazi invasions. In the, directed the Church hierarchy to help.

While Pius XII has been credited with helping to save hundreds of thousands of Jews. The Church has also been falsely accused of encouraging Albert Einstein, addressing the Catholic Church's role during the Holocaust, said the following: 'Being a lover of freedom, when the revolution came in Germany, I looked to the universities to defend it, knowing that they had always boasted of their devotion to the cause of truth; but, no, the universities immediately were silenced. Then I looked to the great editors of the newspapers whose flaming editorials in days gone by had proclaimed their love of freedom; but they, like the universities, were silenced in a few short weeks. 'Only the Church stood squarely across the path of Hitler's campaign for suppressing truth.

I never had any special interest in the Church before, but now I feel a great affection and admiration because the Church alone has had the courage and persistence to stand for intellectual truth and moral freedom. I am forced thus to confess that what I once despised I now praise unreservedly.' This quote appeared in the December 23, 1940 issue of Time magazine on page 38.

Other biased commentators accused Pius of not doing enough to stop Nazi atrocities. Debate over the validity of these criticisms continues to this day. Post-Industrial age [ ] Second Vatican Council [ ]. Main article: The Catholic Church engaged in a comprehensive process of reform following the (1962–65). Intended as a continuation of Vatican I, under the council developed into an engine of modernisation. It was tasked with making the historical teachings of the Church clear to a modern world, and made pronouncements on topics including the nature of the church, the mission of the laity and religious freedom.

The council approved a revision of the liturgy and permitted the to use vernacular languages as well as during mass and other sacraments. Efforts by the Church to improve became a priority.

In addition to finding common ground on certain issues with Protestant churches, the Catholic Church has discussed the possibility of unity with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Reforms [ ] Changes to old rites and ceremonies following Vatican II produced a variety of responses.

Some stopped going to church, while others tried to preserve the old liturgy with the help of sympathetic priests. These formed the basis of today's groups, which believe that the reforms of Vatican II have gone too far.

Catholics form another dissenting group who feel that the Vatican II reforms did not go far enough. The liberal views of theologians such as and, led to Church withdrawal of their authorization to teach as Catholics. According to Professor Thomas Bokenkotter, most Catholics 'accepted the changes more or less gracefully.' In 2007, eased permission for the optional old Mass to be celebrated upon request by the faithful. A new, called for by, was promulgated by on January 25, 1983.

The, includes numerous reforms and alterations in Church law and Church discipline for the Latin Church. It replaced the issued. Theology [ ] Modernism [ ]. This section needs expansion. You can help.

(June 2009) Liberation theology [ ] In the 1960s, growing social awareness and politicization in the Latin American Church gave birth to. The Peruvian priest,, became its primary proponent and, in 1979, the bishops' conference in Mexico officially declared the Latin American Church's 'preferential option for the poor'.

Archbishop, a supporter of the movement, became the region's most famous contemporary martyr in 1980, when he was murdered while celebrating Mass by forces allied with the government. Both and (as Cardinal Ratzinger) denounced the movement.

The Brazilian theologian was twice ordered to cease publishing and teaching. While Pope John Paul II was criticized for his severity in dealing with proponents of the movement, he maintained that the Church, in its efforts to champion the poor, should not do so by resorting to violence or partisan politics. The movement is still alive in Latin America today, though the Church now faces the challenge of Pentecostal in much of the region.

Sexuality and gender issues [ ] The of the 1960s brought challenging issues for the Church. 's 1968 encyclical reaffirmed the Catholic Church's traditional view of marriage and marital relations and asserted a continued proscription of. In addition, the encyclical reaffirmed the sanctity of life from conception to and asserted a continued condemnation of both and as grave sins which were equivalent to murder. The efforts to lead the Church to consider the led Pope John Paul II to issue two documents to explain Church teaching. Was issued in 1988 to clarify women's role in the work of the Church. Then in 1994, Ordinatio Sacerdotalis explained that the Church extends ordination only to men in order to follow the example of Jesus, who chose only men for this specific duty.

Catholicism today [ ]. See also: Catholic-Orthodox dialogue [ ] In June 2004, the Bartholomew I's visited Rome on the (29 June) for another personal meeting with Pope John Paul II, for conversations with the and for taking part in the celebration for the feast day in.

The Patriarch's partial participation in the Eucharistic liturgy at which the Pope presided followed the program of the past visits of Patriarch Dimitrios (1987) and himself: full participation in the, joint proclamation by the Pope and by the Patriarch of the profession of faith according to the in Greek and as the conclusion, the final Blessing imparted by both the Pope and the Patriarch at the Altar of the Confessio. The Patriarch did not fully participate in the Liturgy of the Eucharist involving the consecration and distribution of the itself. In accordance with the Catholic Church's practice of including the clause when reciting the Creed in Latin, but not when reciting the Creed in Greek, Popes and have recited the Nicene Creed jointly with Patriarchs and in Greek without the Filioque clause. The action of these Patriarchs in reciting the Creed together with the Popes has been strongly criticized by some elements of Eastern Orthodoxy, such as the Metropolitan of Kalavryta, Greece, in November 2008 The in 2007 re-asserted these beliefs, and re-stated the notion that the bishop of Rome is indeed the protos, although future discussions are to be held on the concrete ecclesiological exercise of papal primacy. Sex abuse cases [ ]. Further information: Major lawsuits emerged in 2001 claiming that. In response to the ensuing scandal, the Church has established formal procedures to prevent abuse, encourage reporting of any abuse that occurs and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness.

Some priests resigned, others were defrocked and jailed, and there were financial settlements with many victims. The commissioned a comprehensive study that found that four percent of all priests who served in the US from 1950 to 2002 had faced some sort of accusation of. Benedict XVI [ ] With the election of in 2005, the Church has so far seen largely a continuation of the policies of his predecessor,, with some notable exceptions: Benedict decentralized beatifications and reverted the decision of his predecessor regarding papal elections.

In 2007, he set a Church record by approving the beatification of. His first encyclical discussed love and sex in continued opposition to several other views on sexuality. Catholic attempts to improve ecumenical relations with the have been complicated by disputes over both doctrine and the recent history of the Orthodox, involving the return of expropriated properties of the Eastern Catholic Churches, which the Orthodox Church took over after at the request of. [ ] Francis [ ] With the election of in 2013, following the of Benedict, Francis is the current and first Jesuit pope, the first pope from the, and the first from the. Since his election to the papacy, he has displayed a simpler and less formal approach to the office, choosing to reside in the rather than the.

He has signalled numerous dramatic changes in policy as well—for example removing conservatives from high Vatican positions, calling on bishops to lead a simpler life, and taking a more pastoral attitude towards homosexuality. See also [ ]. • Joyce, George (1913). In Herbermann, Charles.. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Regarding Peter as the first Bishop of Rome, 'It is not, however, difficult to show that the fact of his [Peter's] bishopric is so well attested as to be historically certain. In considering this point, it will be well to begin with the third century, when references to it become frequent, and work backwards from this point.

In the middle of the third century St. Cyprian expressly terms the Roman See the Chair of St.

Peter, saying that Cornelius has succeeded to 'the place of Fabian which is the place of Peter' (Ep 55:8; cf. Firmilian of Caesarea notices that Stephen claimed to decide the controversy regarding rebaptism on the ground that he held the succession from Peter (Cyprian, Ep. He does not deny the claim: yet certainly, had he been able, he would have done so. Thus in 250 the Roman episcopate of Peter was admitted by those best able to know the truth, not merely at Rome but in the churches of Africa and of Asia Minor.

In the first quarter of the century (about 220) Tertullian (De Pud. 21) mentions Callistus's claim that Peter's power to forgive sins had descended in a special manner to him. Had the Roman Church been merely founded by Peter and not reckoned him as its first bishop, there could have been no ground for such a contention. Tertullian, like Firmilian, had every motive to deny the claim. Moreover, he had himself resided at Rome, and would have been well aware if the idea of a Roman episcopate of Peter had been, as is contended by its opponents, a novelty dating from the first years of the third century, supplanting the older tradition according to which Peter and Paul were co-founders, and Linus first bishop. About the same period, Hippolytus (for Lightfoot is surely right in holding him to be the author of the first part of the 'Liberian Catalogue' — 'Clement of Rome', 1:259) reckons Peter in the list of Roman bishops.'

• According to several historians, including, 'Peter, in short, could not have been the first bishop of Rome, because the Roman church did not have anyone as its bishop until about a hundred years after Peter's death.' • As examples, Bokenkotter cites that Sunday became a state day of rest, that harsher punishments were given for prostitution and adultery, and that some protections were given to slaves. (Bokenkotter, pp.

41–42.) References [ ].