In: Welcome to the WetCanvas forums. You are currently viewing our boards as a guest which gives you limited access to view most discussions, articles and access our other FREE features. By joining our free community you will have access to post topics, communicate privately with other members (PM), respond to polls, upload your own photos and access many other special features. Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,! If you have any problems with the registration process or your account login, please visit our. >>Andrew Loomis books - free download User Name Remember Me?
Feb 27, 2011 - 14 min - Uploaded by DigiMediaTutorialsIn this video I discuss and demonstrate a basic drawing process taken from Andrew Loomis.
The incredible pencil artist Andrew Loomis wrote a number of instructional books decades ago. All are now out of print. 'Figure Drawing for all it's Worth' is a true classic. You can download the books in.pdf format You can download each one separately, or as a single file. The files are large, so it's best to use a DSL, cable, or T1 link to the web. Dial-up will be slow. The books available at the above link are: Creative Illustration Figure Drawing for all it's Worth Fun with a Pencil Drawing the Head and Hands Successful Drawing The Eye of the Painter Dave.
Diash, you have chosen not to receive emails, so, in order to send you the.pdf's as attachments, you will have to email me, or one of the guides, they can then be emailed to you and you can download them that way! I have a 20mg limit on the size of attachments I can send, and only two of the books are below the limit, Fun With a Pencil, and Drawing the Head and Hands, but would be glad to send those to whomever. Suzi And Dave, like Dee said, what a wonderful Christmas gift to all of us at WC! Thanks again!!
3D tsunami simulation A tsunami (from: 津波, 'harbour wave'; English pronunciation: ) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a., and other (including detonations of underwater ), landslides,, and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal, or, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water.
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising, and for this reason they are often referred to as, although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because tsunamis are not tidal in nature. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves, with ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called '. Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the.
Historian suggested in his late-5th century BC, that tsunamis were related to, but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include trying to determine why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; trying to accurately forecast the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and also to forecast how tsunami waves interact with specific shorelines. Tsunami warning bilingual sign in Ulee Lheue, in and Tsunami The term tsunami, meaning 'harbour wave' in literal translation, comes from the Japanese 津波, composed of the two ( tsu) meaning ' and ( nami), meaning '. (For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese.
) While not entirely accurate, as tsunami are not restricted to harbours, tsunami is currently the term most widely accepted by geologists and oceanographers. Tsunami aftermath in,, December 2004. Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, which is that of an extraordinarily high. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an incredibly high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term 'tidal wave' has fallen out of favour, especially in the scientific community, because tsunamis have nothing to do with, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water.
Although the meanings of 'tidal' include 'resembling' or 'having the form or character of' the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. Seismic sea wave The term seismic sea wave also is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most often are generated by activity such as earthquakes. Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists generally encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave.
However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a completely accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, impacts, and the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes very rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. In November 1755. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people. The Sumatran region is not unused to tsunamis either, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes regularly occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an often underestimated hazard in the and parts of Europe.
Of historical and current (with regard to risk assumptions) importance are the (which was caused by the ), the, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the and tsunami. The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The in the Norwegian sea and some examples of refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves. The historian inquired in his book about the causes of tsunami, and was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake.
At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen.
The historian ( Res Gestae 26.10.15–19) described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic wave, after the devastated. Causes The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea. This displacement of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests. The waves formed in this way are then sustained by gravity. [ ] Seismicity Tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water.
Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the Earth's crustal deformation; when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position. More specifically, a tsunami can be generated when associated with or destructive move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing to the vertical component of movement involved.
Movement on can also cause displacement of the seabed, but only the largest of such events (typically related to flexure in the ) cause enough displacement to give rise to a significant tsunami, such as the and events. The energy released produces tsunami waves. Tsunamis have a small (wave height) offshore, and a very long (often hundreds of kilometres long, whereas normal ocean waves have a wavelength of only 30 or 40 metres), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell usually about 300 millimetres (12 in) above the normal sea surface. They grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a process described below.
A tsunami can occur in any tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas. On April 1, 1946, the 8.6 M w occurred with a maximum of VI ( Strong). It generated a tsunami which inundated on the island of Hawaii with a 14-metre high (46 ft) surge. Between 165 and 173 were killed. The area where the earthquake occurred is where the floor is (or being pushed downwards) under Alaska.
Examples of tsunami originating at locations away from convergent boundaries include about 8,000 years ago, 1929, 1998 (Tappin, 2001). The Grand Banks and Papua New Guinea tsunamis came from earthquakes which destabilised sediments, causing them to flow into the ocean and generate a tsunami.
They dissipated before travelling transoceanic distances. The cause of the Storegga sediment failure is unknown. Possibilities include an overloading of the sediments, an earthquake or a release of gas hydrates (methane etc.). The ( 9.5), ( M w 9.2), ( M w 9.2), and ( M w9.0) are recent examples of powerful that generated tsunamis (known as ) that can cross entire oceans. Smaller ( M w 4.2) earthquakes in Japan can trigger tsunamis (called local and regional tsunamis) that can only devastate nearby coasts, but can do so in only a few minutes.
Landslides In the 1950s, it was discovered that larger tsunamis than had previously been believed possible could be caused by giant. These rapidly displace large water volumes, as energy transfers to the water at a rate faster than the water can absorb. Their existence was confirmed in 1958, when a giant landslide in, Alaska, caused the highest wave ever recorded, which had a height of 524 metres (over 1700 feet).
The wave did not travel far, as it struck land almost immediately. Two people fishing in the bay were killed, but another boat managed to ride the wave. Another landslide-tsunami event occurred in 1963 when a massive landslide from entered the in Italy. The resulting wave surged over the 262 m (860 ft) high dam by 250 metres (820 ft) and destroyed several towns.
Around 2,000 people died. Scientists named these waves. Some geologists claim that large landslides from volcanic islands, e. Adams Golf Tight Lies 1012 Driver Review. g. On in the, may be able to generate megatsunamis that can cross oceans, but this is disputed by many others. In general, landslides generate displacements mainly in the shallower parts of the coastline, and there is conjecture about the nature of large landslides that enter water. This has been shown to subsequently affect water in enclosed bays and lakes, but a landslide large enough to cause a transoceanic tsunami has not occurred within recorded history. Susceptible locations are believed to be the of, in the, in the, and on the island of in the; along with other volcanic ocean islands.
This is because large masses of relatively unconsolidated volcanic material occurs on the flanks and in some cases detachment planes are believed to be developing. However, there is growing controversy about how dangerous these slopes actually are. Some conditions, especially rapid changes in barometric pressure, as seen with the passing of a front, can displace bodies of water enough to cause trains of waves with wavelengths comparable to seismic tsunamis, but usually with lower energies. These are essentially dynamically equivalent to seismic tsunamis, the only differences being that meteotsunamis lack the transoceanic reach of significant seismic tsunamis, and that the force that displaces the water is sustained over some length of time such that meteotsunamis can't be modelled as having been caused instantaneously.
In spite of their lower energies, on shorelines where they can be amplified by resonance they are sometimes powerful enough to cause localised damage and potential for loss of life. They have been documented in many places, including the Great Lakes, the Aegean Sea, the English Channel, and the Balearic Islands, where they are common enough to have a local name, rissaga.
In Sicily they are called marubbio and in Nagasaki Bay they are called abiki. Some examples of destructive meteotsunamis include 31 March 1979 at Nagasaki and 15 June 2006 at Menorca, the latter causing damage in the tens of millions of euros. Meteotsunamis should not be confused with, which are local increases in sea level associated with the low barometric pressure of passing tropical cyclones, nor should they be confused with setup, the temporary local raising of sea level caused by strong on-shore winds. Storm surges and setup are also dangerous causes of coastal flooding in severe weather but their dynamics are completely unrelated to tsunami waves. They are unable to propagate beyond their sources, as waves do. Chester Craftsman Lathe Manual Pdf.
Man-made or triggered tsunamis. See also: There have been studies of the potential of the induction of and at least one actual attempt to create tsunami waves as a. In World War II, the initiated, which attempted to create small tsunamis with explosives in the area of today's; the attempt failed. There has been considerable speculation on the possibility of using to cause tsunamis near an enemy coastline. Even during consideration of the idea using conventional explosives was explored.
Nuclear testing in the by the United States seemed to generate poor results. Operation Crossroads fired two 20 kilotonnes of TNT (84 TJ) bombs, one in the air and one underwater, above and below the shallow (50 m (160 ft)) waters of the lagoon.
Fired about 6 km (3.7 mi) from the nearest island, the waves there were no higher than 3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft) upon reaching the shoreline. Other underwater tests, mainly /Wahoo (deep water) and Hardtack I/Umbrella (shallow water) confirmed the results. Analysis of the effects of and indicate that the energy of the explosions doesn't easily generate the kind of deep, all-ocean waveforms which are tsunamis; most of the energy creates steam, causes vertical fountains above the water, and creates compressional waveforms. Tsunamis are hallmarked by permanent large vertical displacements of very large volumes of water which do not occur in explosions. The wave further slows and amplifies as it hits land.
Only the largest waves crest. Tsunamis cause damage by two mechanisms: the smashing force of a wall of water travelling at high speed, and the destructive power of a large volume of water draining off the land and carrying a large amount of debris with it, even with waves that do not appear to be large. While everyday have a (from crest to crest) of about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft), a tsunami in the deep ocean has a much larger wavelength of up to 200 kilometres (120 mi). Such a wave travels at well over 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph), but owing to the enormous wavelength the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1 metre (3.3 ft). This makes tsunamis difficult to detect over deep water, where ships are unable to feel their passage. The velocity of a tsunami can be calculated by obtaining the square root of the depth of the water in metres multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity (approximated to 10 m/s 2). For example, if the Pacific Ocean is considered to have a depth of 5000 metres, the velocity of a tsunami would be the square root of √(5000 × 10) = √50000 = ~224 metres per second (735 feet per second), which equates to a speed of ~806 kilometres per hour or about 500 miles per hour.
This formula is the same as used for calculating the velocity of shallow waves, because a tsunami behaves like a shallow wave as it peak to peak value reaches from the floor of the ocean to the surface. The reason for the Japanese name 'harbour wave' is that sometimes a village's would sail out, and encounter no unusual waves while out at sea fishing, and come back to land to find their village devastated by a huge wave. As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow, compresses the wave and its speed decreases below 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph). Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) and its amplitude grows enormously – in accord with. Since the wave still has the same very long, the tsunami may take minutes to reach full height.
Except for the very largest tsunamis, the approaching wave does not, but rather appears like a fast-moving. Open bays and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami further into a step-like wave with a steep-breaking front. When the tsunami's wave peak reaches the shore, the resulting temporary rise in sea level is termed run up. Run up is measured in metres above a reference sea level. A large tsunami may feature multiple waves arriving over a period of hours, with significant time between the wave crests. The first wave to reach the shore may not have the highest run up. About 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean, but they are possible wherever there are large bodies of water, including lakes.
They are caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic explosions, glacier calvings, and. Tsunami warning sign Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. People who observe drawback (many survivors report an accompanying sucking sound), can survive only if they immediately run for high ground or seek the upper floors of nearby buildings.
In 2004, ten-year-old of, England, was on in, Thailand with her parents and sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, told her family that a tsunami might be imminent. Her parents warned others minutes before the wave arrived, saving dozens of lives. She credited her geography teacher, Andrew Kearney. In the drawback was not reported on the African coast or any other east-facing coasts that it reached. This was because the wave moved downwards on the eastern side of the fault line and upwards on the western side. The western pulse hit coastal Africa and other western areas. A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted, even if the magnitude and location of an earthquake is known.,, and analyse each earthquake and based on many factors may or may not issue a tsunami warning.
However, there are some warning signs of an impending tsunami, and automated systems can provide warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. One of the most successful systems uses bottom pressure sensors, attached to buoys, which constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water column. Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use to warn the population before the wave reaches land. On the west coast of the United States, which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunami, warning signs indicate evacuation routes. In Japan, the community is well-educated about earthquakes and tsunamis, and along the Japanese shorelines the tsunami warning signs are reminders of the natural hazards together with a network of warning sirens, typically at the top of the cliff of surroundings hills.
The is based in,. It monitors Pacific Ocean seismic activity. A sufficiently large earthquake magnitude and other information triggers a tsunami warning. While the subduction zones around the Pacific are seismically active, not all earthquakes generate tsunami. Computers assist in analysing the tsunami risk of every earthquake that occurs in the Pacific Ocean and the adjoining land masses. One of the deep water used in the tsunami warning system can predict tsunami arrival, usually within minutes of the arrival time. Bottom pressure sensors can relay information in.
Based on these pressure readings and other seismic information and the seafloor's shape () and coastal, the models estimate the amplitude and surge height of the approaching tsunami. All countries collaborate in the Tsunami Warning System and most regularly practise evacuation and other procedures. In Japan, such preparation is mandatory for government, local authorities, emergency services and the population.
Some zoologists hypothesise that some animal species have an ability to sense subsonic from an earthquake or a tsunami. If correct, monitoring their behaviour could provide advance warning of earthquakes, tsunami etc. However, the evidence is controversial and is not widely accepted. There are unsubstantiated claims about the Lisbon quake that some animals escaped to higher ground, while many other animals in the same areas drowned. The phenomenon was also noted by media sources in in the. It is possible that certain animals (e.g., ) may have heard the sounds of the tsunami as it approached the coast. The elephants' reaction was to move away from the approaching noise.
By contrast, some humans went to the shore to investigate and many drowned as a result. Along the United States west coast, in addition to sirens, warnings are sent on television and radio via the, using the. Forecast of tsunami attack probability Kunihiko Shimazaki (), a member of Earthquake Research committee of The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion of Japanese government, mentioned the plan for public announcement of tsunami attack probability forecast at on 12 May 2011. The forecast includes tsunami height, attack area and occurrence probability within 100 years ahead.
The forecast would integrate the scientific knowledge of recent and. As the plan, announcement will be available from 2014.
A at, Japan In some tsunami-prone countries, measures have been taken to reduce the damage caused onshore., where tsunami science and response measures first began following a, has produced ever-more elaborate countermeasures and response plans. The country has built many tsunami walls of up to 12 metres (39 ft) high to protect populated coastal areas. Other localities have built of up to 15.5 metres (51 ft) high and channels to redirect the water from incoming tsunami.
However, their effectiveness has been questioned, as tsunami often overtop the barriers. The was directly triggered by the, when waves exceeded the height of the plant's sea wall., which is an area at high risk from tsunami, had tsunami barriers walls () totalling 25 kilometres (16 mi) long at coastal towns. The 2011 tsunami toppled more than 50% of the walls and caused catastrophic damage. The which struck of within two to five minutes of the, created waves as much as 30 metres (100 ft) tall—as high as a 10-story building.
The port town of Aonae was completely surrounded by a tsunami wall, but the waves washed right over the wall and destroyed all the wood-framed structures in the area. The wall may have succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the tsunami, but it did not prevent major destruction and loss of life.